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10 GET Phrasal Verbs: get down, get off, get through, get up, get away...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Get through this lesson without getting down. Phrasal verbs with GET are very common and popular in everyday speech. In this lesson we will look at the meanings of words like get up, get over, get through, and more. http://www.engvid.com/10-get-phrasal-verbs/ Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs using the verb: "get". Now, before I dive into this lesson, I just want to explain a few things. I've gotten many comments on www.engvid.com and many people tell me that phrasal verbs are very difficult. And I understand that, I appreciate that, but I want you to start thinking of phrasal verbs as vocabulary; it's just extra words you have to study. It's not fun, I understand that, but it's not that difficult either. You just have to remember and use, and practice, practice, practice like any other vocabulary you're learning. So today's verb is: "get". Let's look at some of these prepositions we have. "Get up", "Get down", "Get away", "Get over", "Get off", "Get on", "Get in", "Get through", "Get between", "Get along" or "Get along with". So we're going to go one by one. I'll explain basically what they mean. Sometimes they have more than one; sometimes two, sometimes three different meanings. And if necessary, I'll give examples. Oh, sorry about that. Okay, let's start with: "Get up". "Get up", two general meanings you're going to need to know. One is get up, if you're sitting down, if you're lying down and someone says: "Get up", it means: stand up, stand. Get off the floor, get off the chair, whatever. "Get up" also means to get dressed in a certain way. If you're going to a club, you want to get up all fancy and put on a nice dress or a nice suit for the guys. If it's Halloween, you're going to get up in a nice costume. We can also use "getup" as a noun. "Getup" means what you're wearing. "Nice getup" means: "I like your clothes.", "Nice suit.", "Nice costume.", "Nice" whatever it is you're wearing. "Get down", opposite of "Get up". If you're standing, get down or sit down, for example, so get down. If... If a baseball is flying your way: "Get down!" Duck, get underneath it. "Get down" in a slang way means like get down, like enjoy the music, enjoy the party. You know, like get down, dance, do whatever gets you down. We'll get to "Get off" in a second. You'll understand. "Get away". "Get away" means leave. But in a more colloquial way - "colloquial" means like everyday street English, not necessarily slang but common English - "Get away" means go on vacation. And when you go on vacation, you choose a nice getaway. A getaway is a vacation, like a planned vacation or a nice vacation destination, the place you're going to. So Hawaii is a great getaway in winter in Canada because it's cold; Hawaii: beautiful. "Get over". One, there's a... One meaning: get over something physical like there's a wall and you need to get to the other side, so you get over the wall. Okay? But that wall could also be a problem or an obstacle; it doesn't have to be a physical thing. Right? So you have a problem, get over it, move on, as they say. So you and your girlfriend had a fight, okay, get over it, move on. Continue on like nothing happened. Make up, kiss, whatever you do. Next day everything's good; get over it. Okay? That's the most common meanings of: "Get over".
3 tips for sounding like a native speaker
 
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"That'll be 66 cents please." "Sikysi... what?" Having a hard time understanding native speed English? This lesson will give you some tips on how to sound like a native speaker as well as how to understand what you hear by breaking down expressions into their individual word and sounds. https://www.engvid.com/3-tips-for-sounding-like-a-native-speaker/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again, welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today, I'm going to help you sound a little bit more like a native speaker, hopefully. Students ask me all the time: "How can I sound like a native speaker?" Well, before I say anything, let me just tell you that it will take time and a lot, a lot, a lot of practice. The best way is to live in an English-speaking country, of course, but of course you can do it anywhere, but it takes time; be patient, practice, practice, practice. So we're looking at pronunciation. Let me start with this word: "pronunciation". Not: "pronounciation". It is not a pronoun. A pronoun is: "I", "me", "my", "mine". Pronunciation is how we speak English. So I'm going to give you three tips that will help you sound a little bit more like a native speaker. We're going to start with connecting words. Now, think about your own language, whether you're speaking Spanish or Polish or Chinese, you do this in your language as well. When you're speaking fast, you're taking words and you're squeezing them together; you're connecting them, so one word flows into the next word. That's what we're going to do here. You can connect consonants to consonants. What this means: when a word ends in a consonant... A consonant is "b", "c", "d", "f", "g", etc. A vowel is "a", "e", "i", "o", "u". When a word ends in a consonant and the next word begins with the same consonant, drop the first one. So for example: we do not say: "black coffee", we don't say: "ke, ke". There's only one "k": "bla coffee", "bla coffee." Okay? Practice that. Now, "t" and "d", these are two different consonants, but according to the tongue and the mouth, they almost sound the same so we do the same thing. "Wha do you do?", "Wha do you do?" But again, another thing you have to keep in mind is when we say it fast, we also don't really say "e", we say like a... Sort of like a small... We don't say "o" - sorry -, we say sort of a small "e". "Wha do ye do?" Practice that. "Wha do ye do?" Strange, huh? No "t", "wha", "de ye do?", "Wha de ye do?" That's how a native speaker would say it naturally. Now, another thing is when a word ends in a consonant and the next word begins in a vowel, make sure you roll it in. Right? Roll the consonant into the vowel and separate the syllable before. A syllable is the vowel sounds in a word. Okay? So nobody, like native speakers don't say: "Not at all. Oh no, not at all." We don't say it like that. We say: "Oh, not-at-all.", "Not-at-all.", "Not-at-all." Right? The "t", so this becomes: "No-ta-tall", "No-ta-tall", "Not at all". Okay? Say it quickly, blend the letters one into the next. But again, practice it. Now, for those of you who are going to be taking a test, an English test that involves listening; IELTS, TOEFL, TOEIC, if you're in Canada you're maybe doing a CELPIP test. Okay? This is going to help you on the listening section as well. This is one of the things they're testing. Somebody on the recording will say: "Not-at-all", and you need to cut: "Not at all", you need to understand the separate words, that's part of the test. So practice speaking it, practice listening to it. Another thing we do is we squeeze some words. Okay? Certain words, we don't say all the syllables, we don't even say all the letters. I've heard many students say: "Com-fort-able", "com-fort-able", but native speakers, we don't say this part, we don't say the "or". We say: "Comf-ta-bil", and notice the last sound is like a small tiny, tiny little "i" in there. "Comftabil", "comf-ta-bil", "comftabil". Okay? We don't pronounce the "or": "Comfortable". Nope, don't do that. Another word like that: "Interesting". "In-chre-sting". Find out what the syllables are so: "In-ter" - sorry, my mistake -, "In-ter-rest-ing". If you want to emphasize something, we have a word called: "enunciate". When someone wants to emphasize a word, then they enunciate each syllable; they say each syllable separately. "Oh, that is very in-ter-est-ing." Right? Because I want you to understand that the word is interesting, but in every day speech: "Intresting", "in-tre-sting". "In-ter-est-ing", I have four syllables, when I actually say it naturally, it becomes three syllables and the "t" and the "r" become like a "ch", but that's... We'll talk about that next. Another word: "every". "E-vry". I don't say: "Ev-er-y", I don't say this letter "e", "ev-er-y". "E-vry", "evryone", "evrything", "evry".
TO or FOR? Prepositions in English
 
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http://www.engvid.com 'To' and 'for' are prepositions that are often confused. Although they are used in almost all situations, many people do not know which one to use in which situation. This grammar lesson will give you some tips on how to choose the correct one to make your speech and writing smoother. Take the quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/to-or-for/ Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson is about prepositions; everybody's favourite little words that get in the middle of everything and cause you lots of troubles, and headaches, and confusion. Especially if you're writing, this is the worst part, but even if you're not; always causes problems. Today's prepositions that we're going to look at: "to" and "for". Now, there isn't really a set rule for these prepositions; they can be used in many different ways. What I'm going to try to show you today is when to use "to" instead of "for", when to use "for" instead of "to". Now, to do that, we first have to look at why or situations in which we use these prepositions. So let's start. If you want to express a reason, - okay? -, then you're going to use "to" or "for". "I went to the store", why? "To buy milk." "I went to the store", why? "For milk." What's the difference between these two? Should be very clear I think. Here I have a verb, here I'm only talking about the noun so we use "to". Now, technically, this is not a preposition. Okay? This is an infinitive verb marker, but it looks like a preposition so we'll treat it as one for now. Verb, noun, that's the difference when you're talking about reason. Now, before we go to the next one, I want you to look at this: "I went to the store", whenever you have sort of a movement, - sorry -, and you have a destination... So by movement I mean: "go", "walk", "drive", "take the bus", for example. Anything that involves you moving or going somewhere and then you're talking about the destination, - means the place that you are going to -, it's always going to be "to". And this is very much a preposition showing direction. Okay? Now, there are of course exceptions. There are situations where you can use "for". "Head for the hills", "Make for the lobby", okay? But very, very specific situations, very specific verbs and you're not going to use them that often because they're not as common. Easier to just use "go", okay? Next: if you want to point out a recipient. What is a recipient? A person who receives something. Okay? "Give this to her.", "This is for her." Now you're thinking: "Well, her, her, what's the difference? They look exactly the same." So here is why I wrote: "verb". In this situation, you're not worried about the preposition, you're worried about the verb. In this case: "give", in this case: "is". Okay? When you... Again, when you have motion... And here, "her" or the person is like a destination; it's not a place, but it's the recipient. Recipient is similar to a destination except you have place and person. Okay? If you have motion and recipient, use "to". When you have situation, then you're going to use "for". Okay? So it all depends on the verb, not the preposition. Now, another example: "Can you send this fax to her?" "Send" means motion, you're going to be doing something, you're going to be moving something. "I made this cake for her." "Made" -- you're not moving anything, nothing's changing hands. Right? You made it, this is the situation and it's for her. Eventually she will be the recipient. "I made this for her. Can you give it to her?" Right? So I'm using both: one motion "to", situation "for".
How to say -ed endings in English
 
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http://www.engvid.com "Past" or "passed"? These two words sound the same! In this quick lesson, you will hear how words ending in -ed sound. This will help get rid of pronunciation confusion with similar sounding words. Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/how-to-say-ed-endings-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again, I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is pronunciation again. We want to look at the way words that end in "ed" sound. Okay? A lot of the people ask me how do different words sound because sometimes they can't understand the "ed" ending; they don't hear it. Okay? That is because "ed" ending words end in three different sounds: the "d", "de"; the "t", "te"; the "id", "id". Okay? Now, how do you know when to use which? It all basically works on the last sound before the "ed". If you go through the whole alphabet, you can put every word into one of these categories. Let's start with a short one: "id". When a word ends in "t" and you want to add the "ed" to it or when a word ends in "d" and you want to add an "ed" ending to it, it's always going to sound like "id", "tid", "did", "wanted", "founded". Why? Because "t" and "d" are too close to that last sound of "d", so we need an extra little sound, an extra little syllable almost to separate the two sounds. "Wanted", "founded", "found", "founded". Okay? So those are those two. Next, we'll go to the "t" sound. When a... The last letter, when a word ends in a "s" sound, the last letter is an "s" or an "x" in this case, then this... The "d" sounds like a "t". Again, hard to switch the tongue in time to get the "d" sound, we get the "t": "fixed", "kicked', "dropped", "sniffed". Okay? "Fixed", "kicked", "dropped", "sniffed". "s", "k", "p", "f" ending sounds go with a "t" ending for the "ed". Most of the other sounds come into the "d" sound. "Managed", "fired", "halved", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". "j" or "g", soft "g", "r", "v", "g" - oh, that's the hard "g", that's a soft "g" - "l", "m", "n". All of these words that end... Words that end in these sounds, add the "ed", sounds like a "d". "Managed", "fired", "halved", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". Let's go over the whole list again. "Managed", "fixed", "wanted", "founded", "kicked", "fired", "halved", "dropped", "sniffed", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". Okay? That's all there is to it. Practice these. Any word that you get that you... That has an "ed" ending, you're not sure how to pronounce it: which category is it in? What is the last letter or the last sound before the "ed"? Find out which category it's in, that's your ending sound. Okay? If you have any questions, please go to www.engvid.com. We have a comment section, you can ask any question you like; I'll be happy to answer them. See you again.
Vocabulary - though, although, even though, despite, in spite of
 
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http://www.engvid.com Though, although, even though -- how do we use each of these in English? In this lesson, I'll explain how we use them, and when exactly they are used in English. I'll also teach you the meanings and uses of despite and in spite of. Everything is demonstrated with examples. Test yourself afterwards with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-though/
8 'head' phrasal verbs - head up, head out, head off...
 
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Head to http://www.engvid.com for help with vocabulary! In this lesson we will look at phrasal verbs that use the verb 'head' with different prepositions to mean different things. You'll learn the meaning of head to, head up, head over, and more. Head over to http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-head/ to take the quiz! TRANSCRIPT Hi again. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at phrasal verbs, and today's phrasal verb is -- starts with -- "head": "head up", "head down", "head out", "head over", "head in" or "head inside" - both okay -, "head back", "head off", "head for". Okay? These are the ones we're going to look at and we're going to give examples of each one. First thing to notice: I have... I've grouped these all into one bunch. Basically, these all mean "go". So when we say "head" with any one of these it means "go", but where we go, the direction we go, that changes with each preposition. So let's look at them. When I say: "head up" generally I'm talking about going north. Okay? So if I'm in the US, I'm going to head up to Canada because I'm going north. If I'm in Canada, I'm going to head down to the States. Generally speaking, when we travel or when we go somewhere or drive somewhere especially, we use "head up", "head down". So again, "head up", "head down". If you're going east or west, you basically just "head over" to wherever you're going. Actually let me get to this one: so "head over" means go to a destination or go to a place. So I'm sure some of you have heard the expression "come over". -"Hey, what are you doing?" -"Nothing." -"Well, come over." "Over" means over to my house or over to where I am. So if you're going to head over to somewhere, you're going to go to a specific place. My friend calls me says: "Well, do you want to come over?" And I say: "Yeah, I'll head over right now." Means I'm going to come to your house right now. That goes with "head out". "Head out" basically means "go" but it also means "leave". Okay? So if I'm going to "head out in five minutes" means I'm going to leave here in five minutes; I'm going to go in five minutes. My friend calls me up, says: "Hey, you're late. Where are you?" Say: "Oh, sorry. I got, some things came up. I'm going to head out in five minutes." -- I'm going to leave in five minutes. If you're sitting outside, nice sunny day, drinking with your friends and then you get a little bit tired and you want to go inside your house you say: "I'm going to head in." Okay? "I'm going to head inside." Basically means "go in", "go inside". Usually you would say this when the "in" is understood like if you're outside your house, you're going to head in. If you're in a patio of a restaurant and there's too much sun, "I'm going to head in" or "head inside" -- inside the restaurant. Okay? "Head back" -- go back. We're going for a little trip and I'm getting a little bit tired or a little bit bored and I say: "You know what? Ah, forget it. I'm going to head back." I'm going to turn around, go back where I came from. Okay, all very easy. These two are a little bit different. "Head off" basically means to stop something from happening or to block, and I'll even say here prevent something from happening. Okay? So my girlfriend found out that my ex-girlfriend lives in the same city, and she found out that my ex-girlfriend is going to come over to my house and try to hook up again. So my girlfriend is going to go head her off, she's going to go and block the way; she's not going to let her get to me. Okay? She's going to "head her off at the pass", we say -- it's an expression. Old western movies, you got the cowboys, you got the Indians and the Indians are coming in for attack, and the cowboys, they head them off at the pass. Now, it could also mean to make them change course or make whoever, make something change course. Basically means make it change direction. So I'm going this way, somebody came to head me off and make me go this way instead of this way. Okay, easy. "Head for" also means "go" but it's not so much "go", it's more about move, move towards something specifically or even aim. Okay? So there's an old expression: "Head for the hills." If there's a flood coming, if it's raining very heavily and the water's starting to rise, head for the hills; go toward the hills that are higher, you can keep your feet dry. Okay? So these are all the different uses of "head" with a preposition. Head north: head up; head down: south; head out: leave or go; head over: go to a specific spot or place that you spoke with someone about; head back: go back; head off: stop, block, make change direction; head for a specific place. Now, if you want to get detailed examples, if you want sentences using all of these, go to www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there -- you can try out all these phrasal verbs. Also, check out my YouTube site and subscribe to it. And come back again; visit us, we'll give you another lesson. Thank you.
Grammar: How to use IF & WHETHER properly
 
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Learn how to use "if" and "whether" properly in English. Whether you like it or not, "if" and "whether" are not always interchangeable. In fact, if you use the wrong word, it can change the entire meaning of your sentence. In this lesson, we will review the uses of the two words and see how to use them in a way that will reduce confusion and clarify your ideas. How can you be sure whether to use "if" or "whether" in the proper context? Watch the lesson, and find out! http://www.engvid.com/grammar-if-whether/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Welcome again. Today's lesson is a grammar lesson, and this is a question that I am asked often. What is the difference between "if" and "whether"? Okay? It's a very good question. It's pretty simple, straightforward, but we're going to look at both of these in relation to each other. First of all, let's make sure everybody understands "whether" is not spelled the same as "weather", like sunny, raining. This is about rain, sun, snow, wind, temperature; this is similar to "if", it's about having choices. Okay? So, in some situations, "if" and "whether" are interchangeable, but the best way to not make a mistake, not to mix them up in the wrong context is to always use "if" for conditionals; always use "whether" when you're talking about two alternatives, two choices. Okay? You'll see what I mean. When they can be interchanged. First of all, when they are used as noun clauses, means they can be the object or the subject of a sentence, they can mean the same thing. But again, avoid using them the same if you don't want to make mistakes. "Do you know if Dan is coming?" Do you know what? If Dan is coming. "Do you know whether Dan is coming?" In this case, they basically mean the same thing. Yes or no: is he coming or is he not coming? You could add the "or not?" here: "Do you know whether Dan is coming or not?" But the word "whether" already gives you a choice between yes or no in this particular case, so this is not necessary. It's understood. Okay? Now, let's look at these two sentences: "I don't know if the exam is on Friday or Saturday.", "I don't know whether the exam is on Friday or Saturday." So here, we're looking directly at a choice. When I use "whether": "I don't know whether the exam is on Friday or Saturday." So again, you have two options when you look at "whether". Friday is one option, Saturday is another option. The problem here is if you use "if", "if" is not limited to two options. "I don't know if the exam is on Friday or Saturday, or if it's next week sometime." So here, although they seem to mean the same thing, the "if" gives you other options that the "whether" doesn't. "Whether": one, two. "If": one, two, or something completely different. So if you want to avoid making this mistake, use "whether" for the choices, use... Save "if" for when you have your conditional sentence. Now, what is a conditional sentence? A conditional sentence is using "if" as an adverb clause. There's a condition. If "A" happens, "B" will happen. Okay? One thing needs to happen for the second thing to happen, that's the condition. So: "Let me know", oh, sorry. I forgot this word, here. "Let me know if you're coming.", "Let me know whether you're coming." In this case, they're both okay. "Let me know whether you're coming or not." Now, what's the difference between: "Let me know if you're coming", "Let me know whether you're coming or not"? If you are coming, yes, let me know. This is a conditional. If this is true, do this. "Let me know whether you're coming or not." If you're coming, let me know; if you're not coming, let me know. So in this case, both apply. Okay? So, again, use this to... The condition. This is the condition, this is the result. Here, this is going to happen regardless. So we're going to look at this in a second in more detail. Okay? "I'll come over if you want me to." If you want it, I will do it; if you don't want it, I will not do it. So this is the condition. If you want me to, I'll come over. This is the condition, this is the result. So your best option is to always use "if" with conditionals, use "whether" to talk about two alternatives. Now, the other common use of "whether" is to mean "regardless". Doesn't matter what happens, regardless of the situation, here's what I want you to do. "I'm coming over whether you like it or not." Okay. "Whether you like it or not" means if you like it, I'm coming over; if you don't like it, too bad, I'm coming over. So this verb is going to happen regardless of this situation.
Phrasal Verbs with TAKE: "take to", "take in", "take after"...
 
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http://www.engvid.com So you've decided to take up English. Good for you! Take your language skills further by learning phrasal verbs that use the verb TAKE. In this lesson, you'll learn the difference between "taking a girl out to dinner" and "taking the bad guy out of action". We'll also look at expressions such as "take to", "take in", "take after", and more. If you don't know them already, don't worry. I'll take you under my wing! Test your knowledge with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-take/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, phrasal verbs; everybody's favourite lessons. Today, we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb "take". Again, a quick review: what is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition, when put together, giving different meanings. Sometimes one, sometimes two, sometimes more. So, today, we're going to look at "take out", "take in", "take over", "take up",-excuse me-"take after", "take back", "take off", "take on", "take down", "take to". Let's start with "take out". All of you, of course, know takeout food. You go to McDonald's, they ask you if you want to eat in or take out. So, take out means to take your food to go. That's one meaning. Another meaning of "take out" is the literal meaning; exactly what the words mean. For example, you have a turkey in the oven. It is finished cooking. You take it out of the oven. Then, there is also the slang. If you want to take someone out, you kill them. You see this in kind of the mob movies. They want to take someone out; they want to assassinate. Assassinate. I'll have to... Yeah, I'll leave that for now. Okay. "Take in". What does "take in" mean? A few meanings as well. The first is the most common one. If your clothes are too big, if you've lost some weight, you might want to take in your shirt, or your dress, or your pants. You take it to a tailor, and he or she will take it in; make it smaller, tighter. Another meaning of "take in", for example, if you go outside your house and you see a cat, and the cat is sitting there: "Meow, meow", you know, it's all sad and lonely. You take it in. It doesn't mean you take it into your house. It, of course, means that. But more, it means like adopt. You take it into your house, you give it a home, it's part of the family. So, you accept, you take in, you adopt something or someone. "Take over". "Take over" means assume control of something. So, for example, if I own a big company and you own a slightly smaller company, but you're my competition, one way I can beat you is I can take over your company. I can buy a lot of shares in your company, and I take over. I take control. If we're going on a long road trip, and I'm driving and I'm getting tired, I say: "Oh, can you take over the driving?" Means we switch, and you continue driving. "Take up". If you take up space, for example, it means you use. You use space. You take up space in a room. Another way to say "take up" is you start to do something new, like a new hobby, or you start learning something new. So, recently, I took up Spanish. It means I started going to Spanish classes, and I started to learn Spanish. Now, if you add "with", you can take something up with someone. It means you can discuss. So, if you have a problem in your class and you're falling behind, and you're not doing so well, take this problem up with your teacher. It means go to your teacher and discuss the situation. See how you can fix it. Okay. "After". If you take after someone, means you behave like them. It's very similar to look like, except it's not about physical features; it's about personality. So, if you take after someone, you are similar to someone in terms of character or behaviour. So, for example, I take after my mother. My sister takes after my father. My father was a very hot-tempered man. My sister's a very hot-tempered woman, so she takes after him. "Take back". Again, two meanings. There's the literal meaning, so I lend you my pen. You use it. You finished. I take it back. You give it back to me, it returns to me; I take it back. Now, if I said something really mean to you or something not nice, or I made a promise and then I take it back, it means I cancel what I said. So, if I said something that made you upset and I take it back, it means I apologize. I take back the bad words and everything's okay, hopefully. If I made a promise then take it back, it means I'm not going to do this promise anymore. Okay? So you have to be a little bit careful about take backs. "Take off". I think most of you know the airplane takes off. It goes down the runway, then "whew," takes off. But "take off" can also mean to be very successful or very quickly to do well. So, a business starts and, you know, the owners are doing what they can, but suddenly the business just takes off. It becomes very popular, very successful, making lots of money, hopefully, again.
English Grammar - "I wish..." - Subjunctive
 
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http://www.engvid.com "I wish I were...". "He wishes it would...". Wishes are a part of everyday conversation among native English speakers. Are they all dreamers? Maybe. But most of the time, we use 'wish' to talk about something that isn't true or real, more than to talk about our fantasies. In this grammar lesson for advanced students, you'll learn the correct way to construct sentences using 'wish' and the subjunctive voice. You can also take a quiz on this lesson: http://www.engvid.com/wish-subjunctive/
9 TURN Phrasal Verbs: turn on, turn off, turn over, turn around, turn out...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Learn nine phrasal verbs with the verb TURN. You've heard these phrases before but weren't sure what they meant. In this English lesson, learn phrases such as turn in, turn over, and turn out. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/turn-phrasal-verbs/ Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is phrasal verbs. Okay? We have phrasal verbs with the verb: "turn". Again, remember: just like vocabulary, remember them, practice them, use them over and over again, you will remember them very well. And again, remember: phrasal verbs: usually or almost always more than one meaning. Okay? So keep that in mind. Let's start with: "turn on". So, of course, all of you have some sort of electronic equipment at home; you have appliances, you have stereos, you have lights. You want to "turn on" lights and then you want to "turn off", dark. Okay? So that's the easy one. "Turn on": put power to, as it were. Slang: to "turn-on" means to get someone excited. Okay? Or to create an interest in. So, if a woman is wearing like a nice summer dress with like really thin straps, and like very loose, it's a turn-on for a lot of guys. Here, I'm using it as a noun, a "turn-on". That woman knows how to turn on men. Men can turn on women in other ways, hopefully not with a summer dress at the same time. Okay? It's slang. Be careful with it. Something turns you on, it gets you excited. But you can also turn on... a teacher, hopefully, will turn his students on to the subject that he's teaching or she's teaching. If you want your student to study history, you have to turn them on to it; make them interested, make them excited about it. "Turn off", again, the opposite. "Turnoff", notice here: hyphen, here: no hyphen for the nouns. But to turn off means to make someone lose interest or to disgust someone, to make someone go: "Ulgh, no I don't want any of that." Lose all interest, lose all excitement, not be able to do anything. It's a turnoff, so something turns you off, like a bad smell will turn you off in pretty much any situation. Okay, "turn up". Now, if you have a stereo, you want to "turn up" the volume, make it louder. Okay? The opposite will be "turn down". I didn't write it here, but "turn down": lower, "turn up": raise the volume. But "turn up" can also mean to discover. Okay? So, I was reading through the book, I was doing some research and an interesting piece of information turned up, something I wasn't expecting. Okay? But "turn up" also means to appear. I invited a lot of people to my party, but twice as many turned up, means appeared, they came. Interesting. "Turn over": again the physical, you turn something over like if you're cooking a steak; cook it on one side for two minutes, turn it over, cook the other side for a couple of minutes, so flip. But "turnover" in terms of like business, if you have a restaurant, you want to turn over your tables as many times as you can, means you want to rotate their use. So somebody comes in, they eat, you clean... They leave, you clean up, you get the next person. So this table has a good turnover. Okay? You can use it more than one time; it's like rotating the cycle of its use. Then we talk about "turnover". A good restaurant must have a high "turnover". If it doesn't, then it must have very expensive menu prices or menu items or it will go out of business. McDonald's, for example, has huge turnover. That's why they make so much money; always busy. "Turn around": sorry to show my back to you, but I turned around and now I turned around again to face you. Okay? So that's again, the physical, so the physical turn around. But "turn around" can also just mean change. So last week, my boss agreed to give me a raise, but this week he turned around and decided not to; he changed his mind. Okay. "Turn in": so when your teacher gives you a test, you write the test, at the end of the class you have to turn it in; submit. Sometimes we say "hand in", it's the same thing. You can also "turn in" a criminal to the police. So you know that this person did something bad, you call the police, say: "Yeah, he did it." So you turn him or her in to the police. Now, also used in slang - and don't ask me why because I don't know -, "turn in" also means go to sleep. Okay? "Oh, I'm tired. I think I'll turn in. Goodnight." Go to sleep, turn in.
Learn English - ALL or WHOLE?
 
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http://www.engvid.com/ Not sure about when to use 'all' or 'whole'? Do you find all of English difficult, or is it just the whole language? This grammar lesson will help you avoid an extremely common mistake that many students make. See if you get all of the questions right on my quiz at http://www.engvid.com/all-whole/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi again. Adam here. www.engvid.com. I have another lesson for you today. This is actually a request by Feresque -- Feresser? I hope I'm saying it right. Sorry about that. It was in the comments section of www.engvid.com. Please leave questions and comments and requests and we'll do our best to get them for you. So the request was: the difference between "all" and "whole". Now, the reason I also chose this lesson is because this is a very common mistake that students make. They mix these two up all the time. They have very specific roles in situations. We're going to look at them today. The first and most important thing to remember about "all" versus "whole" is where to put the definite article "the". So it's always "all the" whatever you're talking about, "the whole" whatever you're talking about, so always "the" after "all", "the" before "whole". Now, they sound a little bit similar, "all", "whole", but not. Right? So be careful about pronunciation. Sometimes people might think you're mixing them up just because of pronunciation: "all", "whole". Make sure you get that "H" sound and that "O" sound together. Now, what's the difference between "all" and "whole"? "All", you're talking about "everything". Whatever it is you're talking about, you're talking about all of it, basically: everything, one, etc. When you're talking about "whole", you're talking about a "complete" something: a complete package, a complete group, a complete container of something, right? Whatever it is you're talking about, it has to be complete, right? It has pieces inside, and then the whole is the complete collection of whatever it is you're talking about, whereas "all" is just everything that's involved with that noun, etc. So I'm going to give you a very quick example: You're sitting -- your friend went on a trip out of town. He had to take the bus for two hours to his friend's house in Montreal, let's say. He comes back. You ask him "How was the trip?", and he goes, "Oh, my God, there was a baby on the bus, and the baby cried all the time." But if he said, "The baby cried the whole time", do you think that it's a different meaning? Usually people will understand the same thing, but technically, "all the time" doesn't mean two hours crying. It means "cried, stopped, cried, stopped, cried, stopped." It seemed like he was crying throughout the trip, okay? But if somebody said, "The baby cried the whole time", I understand "two hours, baby crying, wah, wah, wah, two hours." It could drive a person crazy. "All the time" -- he cried enough times that it seemed like a long time. "The whole time" means for two hours straight, non-stop. Okay. So that's a big difference between "all" and "whole", okay? "The whole time", I'm talking about the specific duration, the complete journey, two hours. "All the time" -- always: always crying, stopping. Always crying, stopping, crying, stopping, crying, stopping. Not very much fun. But, "I studied all day" -- I have a test tomorrow; I studied all day. "I studied the whole day." In this case, I would understand the exact same thing as well. You can switch these two. But "all day" means, "I studied. I took a break. I studied. I didn't do anything else -- only studied today." But "I studied the whole day" means "I sat at my desk, and I studied; I didn't stop." So that's one of the big differences between "all" and "whole". "Whole" we're talking about time, non-stop, continuous. "All" means in that day, many times, and that's basically -- you did -- that's the one activity that you did, okay? So this is one aspect of "all" and "whole". "The" and duration, like, "always" and the "complete" time of whatever it is you're talking about. We're going to look at a couple of other differences that are very important that you need to keep in mind. Okay, so now we're going to look at a few other differences that are sometimes very small but important. So let's look at the two examples here first: "All my friends came." "My whole group of friends came." What do you notice first about the differences between these two? One, the possessive adjective -- my, his, your, etc. -- with "all" comes after "all" -- comes before "whole": "My whole group of friends came." So I can say "all my friends", all individual friends, right? But remember what I said about "whole". "Whole" means something complete, a complete package of something. So I have "group of friends" came. The meaning is more or less the same, okay? But here I talk about the group; here I talk about the individuals. Very important to remember. But most important -- possessive, after "all", before "whole", okay? That's one.
English Grammar - comparing with LIKE & AS
 
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http://www.engvid.com This lesson is not like others. You can compare with 'more', but can you do it with 'like' or 'as'? This lesson will help you compare things and actions correctly and help you write and speak as a native speaker does. Test yourself on this lesson with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-comparing-with-like-as/
English Grammar - Inversion: "Had I known...", "Should you need..."
 
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http://www.engvid.com Should you need help understanding why the subject in this sentence comes after the verb, I can show you. In this English grammar lesson, we will look at sentences in which the subject and verb order is inverted, and the particular situations in which to use them. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-inversion/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about inversion. Now, what does "inversion" mean? "Inversion" is when you change the order of something. Right? So we're looking at grammar. Usually, you know in a sentence a subject comes first and then a verb. Today we're going to look at situations where that is reversed. Now, of course, I'm sure that you know that in questions: "Are you sure?" the verb comes before the subject in all questions. That's what makes a question structure a question structure. However, there are other situations where we have this inversion, but we're looking at a sentence; we're not looking at a question. Now, the thing to understand about inversions is that they are very particular. There are only a few expressions that you're going to use inversion with. You can't put them in just about... In just any sentence that you want. The examples that I've written on the board are the ones that you might read or that you might want to write. There are other situations that use this, but unless you're writing poetry or artistic, creative novels - you don't need them and you don't really need to worry about them either. They're very rare. It's very rare you'll see them. It's very, very formal language style. And you'll recognize them, hopefully, when you do see them. So let's start here. When we have "not only". Generally speaking, when we have a sentence that begins with a negative, we're going to have inversion, but especially when you have "not only", you're going to have inversion. Okay? "Not only did he", so there's your verb, there's your subject, there's your verb. Okay? We have the helping verb, the auxiliary verb to start. "Not only did he win", and then we have the "but", "also" to go with "not only". This is like an expression that's fixed; you're always going to be looking at the same thing. "Not only did he win, but he also broke the record." Whatever. "Not only", inversion, "but also". "Under no circumstances", this is another expression that you'll see regularly. And again, we're looking at the negative construction which is why we're looking at the inversion. "Under no circumstances should you call her/call him." Okay? Whatever you do, don't call. "Under no circumstances". "Circumstances", basically situation. In no situation should you call. In no situation, same idea. Okay? Another negative: "nor". What is "nor"? Is the negative of "or". Okay? "Or", "nor". Again, many people don't use this word anymore; it's a little bit old-fashioned, a little bit high formality level. But... "The mayor of Toronto refused to resign, nor do we expect him to." Okay? So after "nor", we still have the inversion. Verb, subject, verb. Verb, subject. Okay? I'm not sure if you know the mayor of Toronto, he's very famous now. We're not very proud, but that's a whole other story. Next, so these are the three negatives. These two are also very similar. Again, very formal style, but you might see it, you might want to use it in your essays or whatever. "Should you need any help, don't hesitate to call." What does this mean? "Should you need", if you need. "Should" is just a more formal way to say: "if". "If you need any help, don't hesitate to call.", "Should you need any help, don't hesitate to call." Now, this is a verb, subject, verb. If we use: "if", then there's no issue. Then you have "if" which is a conjunction, adverb, clause, conjunction, subject, verb. "Should" makes it verb, subject, verb. "Had" is the same thing with the "if", but a different structure of the conditional, a different "if" structure. "Had I known you were coming, I would have changed." "If I had known", "If I had known you were coming", "Had I known", it's basically you're making the sentence a little bit shorter, a little more formal. You're starting with a verb, a subject, and another verb. Okay? Past perfect, of course. So these are the conditionals, these are the no's. Now, we have the comparatives, when you're comparing something. When you're comparing an action, so you're using the clause marker: "as", not the preposition: "like". So: "John speaks Chinese, as does Lucy." Okay? "Lucy" is actually the subject, here's the verb, here's a subject. Now, I could put a period and put a new sentence. "So does Lucy." Same idea. "Lucy does as well." If I want the subject, verb order. But when you start with "as", you're going to invert the order. This is a clause marker, adverb clause marker to compare.
10 HOLD Phrasal Verbs: hold up, hold to, hold out...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Hold on to your hats! Excitement is on the way. In this English lesson, we'll go over some uses of "hold + prepositions" so you know when to grab something, or just wait (like on the phone). Do you know when to 'hold on', and when to 'hold back'? What do you do in a 'hold up'? You'll learn these phrases and many others. Once you do, take the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/10-hold-phrasal-verbs/ to check if you really understand them. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, one of your favourites, phrasal verbs; everybody's favourites because they're so much fun and easy to understand. Today we're going to look at phrasal verbs with "hold". Okay? We have 10 of them. And again, what is a phrasal verb? Just to review. It is a verb, in this case: "hold", plus a preposition, when put together, have completely different meanings than the two words by themselves. So, let's start. We have: "hold on". Now, many of you might hear this one when you call somebody on the phone and you say: -"Hi, may I speak with Joe?" -"Oh, yeah, I'll get him. Hold on." What does "hold on" mean? Means wait. "Hold on" also means grab. So if you're on the bus and you see like it's a bit shaky, you hold on to the bar so you don't fall. "Hold on", wait; "hold on", grab. Next, we have: "hold off". Now, "hold off" can also mean wait. But whereas "hold on" means I'm telling you to wait, usually "hold off" means you're waiting for something else to finish. Right? So I will hold off giving you the quiz until I finish explaining everything. It's a little bit like postpone as well. It can also means... It could also mean - sorry - delay. So, we will hold off the election until everybody has a chance to find out who the candidates are. Okay? So we will hold off, we will postpone it or delay it. "Hold up". "Hold up" also means delay, to delay something. So the party was held up because not enough people came because of the bad weather. Okay? Or the concert was held up because the singer was a little bit sick, couldn't make it on to the stage for whatever reason. A completely different meaning of "hold up" is: "Stick 'em up. This is a hold up." A robbery. Okay? But what you have to remember is this could also be a noun, a one-word noun. In that case, it's a robbery. The bank robbers walked into the bank and held up the tellers to get their money. "Hold out". "Hold out" also means wait, but in a very different context. If you're holding out for something better, it means you're waiting for a better offer, or a better situation, or anything better to come along. So, for example: in sports, you will hear this word often. A professional hockey player is coming to the end of his... coming to the end of his contract. The team wants to sign him to a new contract, but he's not. He's not signing. Why? He wants more money. They say: "Okay. We're not going to give you more money". He'll say: "Okay, I'll wait". So he is holding out for a better offer. This could also be a noun, a "holdout". We would say the person is a holdout for a better contract. "Hold over". "Hold over" also means to delay. The exhibition was held over until next week because of technical difficulties. The lights weren't working or there was a problem with the electricity, so the exhibition was held over to the next week. "Hold against". Also, two meanings. I can hold the pen against my chest. I could hold the baby against my heart, for example. But "hold against" - completely different meaning - means to have a grudge. Now, I'm not sure if you guys know what "grudge" means. A grudge means when you... When somebody did something bad to you and you just can't forgive them. You will always remember that bad thing they did and you will always hold it against them. Every time they want to speak to you, you're... In the back of your mind is that bad thing they did. You're always remembering; you're never forgetting, you're never forgiving. So you hold it against them all the time. They want to help you, you don't trust them. You hold it against them that they did something bad to you in the past. "Hold onto", again two meanings. Similar to "hold on", hold on to something, "hold onto" your seats, we're going to go very fast. So when you go to a movie, for example, say: "Hold onto your seats, this is going to be an exciting ride", or an exciting movie, or whatever. "Hold onto" also means keep. Hold onto your job, basically. Don't lose your job; hold onto it. Hold onto your friends. Never lose your friends; not a good idea.
Phrasal Verbs with SET: set up, set in, set to...
 
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The verb "set" can mean many different things in English, depending on how you use it. In this lesson, you will build your vocabulary with phrasal verbs using the verb "set". We will look at expressions such as "set in", "set to", "set out", and more. The context of "set" can also change its meaning. For example, you will learn the difference between "setting up someone on a date" and "setting up someone for arrest". Set yourself up for success by watching this lesson and doing the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-with-set/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs. We're going to look at the phrasal verbs with "set". Okay? Again, a phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition that together have a very different meaning than the two words individually. Okay? Not the literal meaning. So we're going to look at: "set up", "set in", "to", "on", "down", "against", "aside", "back", "apart", "out", "off", and "about"-those are similar so I put them together-and this is an idiom, it's not a phrasal verb, but I thought I would throw it in there: "to set someone straight". Okay, let's start with "set up". "Set up" has quite a few meanings. Okay? We set up something, for example, a display. It means we build it, we construct it, or we put it together. So I want to... For example, I want to display a painting, so I set up the easel, the display. I build it, I put it all together, and then I put the painting on top of that. Okay? In a similar way, we build a business. Okay? So we set up a business. Sometimes we say we "set up shop". We set up shop; we start a business. We also use "set up shop" as a slang expression, it means to start doing something like a professional, but depends on the context for that. Now, you can also set someone up, means to arrange a meeting or create, like, a date. So, I have a single friend, a guy, and my... My girlfriend has a single girlfriend, and we set them up. It means we bring them together, we say: "Oh, let's go out for dinner", we all meet together, and then we introduce them, and maybe they go on a date later. So we arrange this meeting, we set them up for a date. You can also set someone up, meaning, like, frame them. This is usually in terms of crimes. So I want this person to go to jail, so I will set them up. I will put some drugs in their office, and I will call the police and say: "Oh, this guy has drugs." The police will come, they will check, they will find the drugs, and they will arrest this person. So I set him up for arrest. Okay? Now, I put here the "to", because we can say we... "You set someone up to", verb. What this means is you put them in a position. So, for example, I have a child and if I don't educate my child properly, then I am setting him up to fail in the future. Why? Because he doesn't have the tools to succeed. You can also say... You can make it a noun, you can say: "set up" or "set someone up for failure". Put them in that position that the only thing that can happen is they will fail. Okay? So that is "set up". "Set in". "Set in" basically means, like, take hold. But not like physically holding with your hand. Something captures or catches the thing it's meant to do. So here's an example: I'm walking through the jungle, I'm trekking through the jungle and a snake bites me. It's a poisonous snake. So the poison enters my arm, goes into the bloodstream, and starts to move. I'm okay, nothing happens. I'm walking, I think I should go to the hospital. But soon, the poison sets in. It takes hold of the body, of my system, and suddenly I can't move, and I fall to the ground. Or if you're in a dangerous situation, at the beginning, you think: "Okay, you know, it's not so bad", but then suddenly the fear sets in. The fear takes over your mind, it holds your mind, because you realize it's a very, very dangerous situation. We have a couple other expressions. "Set foot in", if you set foot in a place, it means you enter it. So if I'm a storeowner and I catch you stealing something, I will say: "Okay, I will let you go this time, but if you ever set foot in my store again, if you even a little bit come inside, I will call the police and have you arrested." Okay? We also have "set in motion". These are both common expressions. "To set in motion" means to get something started. So, there were riots in the city last week, but the police and the media are still trying to figure out what set it in motion. What was the trigger? What was the initial cause that got this thing started, got it moving? Okay?
Learn English - OTHER, ANOTHER, OTHERS, THE OTHER, OTHERWISE
 
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http://www.engvid.com You've seen the words other, the other, and another before, but in this lesson you'll see how they are used to identify numbers (plural/singular), a prior reference, and as transitions in essays, such as those on the IELTS and TOEFL. You'll also understand how to use 'otherwise' and 'other than' as expressions. Take a quiz on this lesson at http://www.engvid.com/other-another-otherwise/ .
Everyday or every day?
 
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http://www.engvid.com Every day, people confuse everyday words in English. In this lesson we will see the big difference a little space between words can make, and how misunderstanding can happen because of it. http://www.engvid.com/everyday-or-every-day/
LOOK at these PHRASAL VERBS with "look"
 
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In this lesson, you will learn some common phrasal verbs using the verb LOOK. Do you often have to LOOK UP phrasal verbs and expressions? Do others LOOK DOWN on you when you don't understand? After this lesson, things will start to LOOK UP. Then, when someone yells "LOOK OUT!", you'll know to be careful. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-look/ TRANSCRIPT' Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson, again, everybody's favourite, phrasal verbs. We're going to look at phrasal verbs with "look". Again, what is a phrasal verb? It's a verb with a preposition combination to get usually very different meanings. Now, if you're thinking: "Oh my god. Too many of these phrasal verbs. You're doing too many of these lessons", things are starting to look up. I'm getting near the end. There's a limit to how many of these I can do, so don't worry; things are looking up. Okay. Let's start with "up". "Look up". A few meanings. There's the literal meaning, look up. Look up at the sky; look up, see that plane flying. No problem. You can also "look up". If any of these words give you difficulty and you're not sure what I'm saying or you didn't catch what I'm saying, look them up in the dictionary or look them up online. Go to Google or go to wherever you go, the dictionary, punch in the word, and you will get the meaning of this word. Now, what I said before: "Things are looking up." If something is starting to look up, it means it's starting to be more positive. It's starting to look better. Okay? You can be a bit happier about what's coming. So you can look up to the situation changing, or the situation is changing. "Look up to". This is a little bit different. "Look up to" means... Because of the "to", you're getting a bit of a direction of somewhere. Right? So you're looking up to someone. If you look up to someone, means you use them as a role model. They're somebody you want to be like. Okay? So I'll put here just so you get that word. "Role model". So, usually, when you're young as a child, you look up to your parents. You think: "Oh my god. My parents are amazing. I want to be like them." When you get older, we'll leave that to you. "Look down". Now, I'm not saying you're going to look down on your parents, but when you look down on somebody, you're putting them beneath you. Okay? You're making them a little bit inferior. The opposite of inferior - superior. Okay? But if somebody is inferior and if you look down on somebody, means you think they are less than you. They're not as good at their job, they're not as good of a baseball player or whatever sport. They're... You're a better student than they are, so you look down on them. You're thinking: "Not so good." Of course, "look down" by itself is just look down on the ground. "Look over". Okay? Now, if there's a fence here between my house and my neighbour's house, I could look over the fence and see what's going on. But "look over" can also mean just check. Okay? So, for example, I wrote an essay, and before I hand it in to my teacher, I want to give it to my friend to look over the essay and make sure there's no mistakes, make sure I didn't say anything wrong or make any spelling mistakes. I just want him or her to check it. I want him to look it over and check it. "Look in on". Okay? "Look in on" means just keep an eye out for somebody, or a little bit take care of somebody. Right? So, for example, I'm going away on vacation next week. I ask my neighbour to look in on my plants. All he has to come in, open the door, check they're still alive, okay. We'll talk about "look after", it's a little bit similar... You know what? I'll talk about "look after" now. If I have a dog, I can't ask my neighbour to "look in" on my dog. I need more than that. I need my neighbour to "look after" my dog. "Look after" means take care of. Okay? "Look through" is also a little bit similar to "look over", but a little bit more detailed. "Look through" is inspect, look for detailed things. So I want you to look through my essay, and find this or that particular thing. "Look over", very quickly skim it; look for any problems. "Look through", I want you to go in detail and find everything. Now, "look through" can also be a physical action. For example, the police, if they're trying to find a criminal, they will go... If they have a suspect, they will go to his or her house, they will look through their garbage to find any clothes. So, "look through" means inspect, look for something specific. Okay. So, "look after", take care. "Look into". "Look into" means investigate. So there's a problem at my office, we're not... Our sales are not very high; we're losing money somewhere. I'm going to "look into" the problem. I'm going to find out what's going on. Okay? So, "look into", investigate.
Bored or Boring? Learn about -ED and -ING adjectives in English
 
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Does grammar make you feel "bored" or "boring"? In this video we'll study the difference between "-ed" and "-ing" adjectives and how to use them correctly. I hope I can get you excited about grammar, because it can be interesting when you understand it! This is a great lesson for beginners to learn. But advanced English learners should also make sure they don't make this common mistake! TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/ed-ing-adjectives-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about a particular type of adjective that many people often confuse, especially beginners, but this is also good for intermediate, even advanced students. We're talking about the "ed" and the "ing" adjectives. Okay? So, for example: "bored" and "boring", "interested" and "interesting". Now, the reason it's important to know the difference between these is because what you say about yourself sometimes, how you describe things can be very confusing to a native speaker especially, but to other people as well if you mix these two up. Now, what does it mean to be bored and what does it mean to be boring? When we talk about "bored", we're describing a feeling. Okay? When we talk about "interested", we're describing a feeling. So all of the "ed" adjectives are actually feelings, and you can only use them to talk about people and sometimes animals. Why? Because things, like chairs, or tables, or whatever, they don't have feelings. A movie, a book doesn't have feelings. TV shows, for example, movies, books, whatever, they cause a feeling in a person. So the "ing" adjectives cause the feeling. The "ed" adjectives are the feeling. Okay? So very important. Only people and animals for the "ed", and for the "ing" you can use people, animals, things, situations, places, ideas, basically any noun because you're describing them. You're describing how they make people feel. So now you're wondering: "Well, I have people here and I have people here, so how can I use 'boring' for people and for... And 'bored' for people?" Sorry. So what we have here, again, feeling and cause of feeling. So if you say: "I'm bored" means that I'm not having fun, I want to go do something else. If I say: "I am boring" means you're not having fun and want to go do something else. So if I am boring means that you are bored. If the movie is boring, then I am bored. Okay? So one thing-the "ing"-causes the feeling-"ed"-in the person. Very important to understand that. So: "I am bored by the movie which is boring. I am interested in this lesson because this lesson is very interesting." Right? "I'm excited, something is exciting." So, for example, I'm excited to go see the concert because this artist is very exciting, this singer or whatever. "I am worried", now people don't realize that "worried" can have "worrying" as another adjective. "The situation is worrying" means the situation is making me feel worried. Okay? Maybe the whole global political situation, whatever. Now, hopefully none of you are confused by this lesson because I'm trying to make it not confusing. Okay? Everybody okay with that? So very important to understand all these nouns can use "ing" because they're creating the feeling, all these adjectives can only be used for people, again, sometimes animals. A dog sees... Sees you coming home after a long day, gets very excited. Its, you know, tail wagging in the back. Dogs don't usually get bored, they just go to sleep. So, animals sometimes. Now, I just want to point out one other thing: Don't confuse feeling adjectives with "ed" with actual feelings. Okay? If somebody is loved, does he feel loved? Maybe yes, maybe no. We're not talking about that person's feelings. "Hated", "envied", these are all feeling words, but these are all verbs. Okay? "He is loved" means somebody loves him or her. "She is loved.", "This person is hated." But we can also use these about things. Okay? "The company is hated." So some companies they do not such nice things or maybe they go to a poor country and use very cheap labour, so this company is hated. So people hate this company. So keep in mind that these are feeling words, but used as verbs; whereas these are other verbs used as adjectives. Okay? Very important to distinguish between these words. I hope this was clear enough. One more thing to say, there's a very long list of these kinds of adjectives, you can just Google them if you need to or you can even ask me in the forum at www.engvid.com. There's a place you can ask questions, feel free to ask me about other examples of these. But there's also a quiz at www.engvid.com where I'll give you more examples of these kinds of adjectives, and you can practice using them in sentences. Make sure you understand the context: "Is somebody feeling this? Is something causing this?" etc. Also, give me a like if you like this video, and don't forget to subscribe to my channel.
Travel English: How to go through customs at the airport
 
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Do the customs officers at the airport in the U.S. make you nervous? Me too. But there is no need to be. Just be prepared and calm, and use the tips in this lesson to make your experience much smoother and less stressful. Learn the words and phrases they will use when they ask you questions, and learn how to answer. If you answer incorrectly, you may be shot. Don't forget to practice with the quiz before you fly! http://www.engvid.com/travel-english-airport-customs/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is a little bit specialized. We're going to talk about going through customs at a U.S. airport, more specifically, at an airport. Now, before I begin, why am I doing this lesson? Not too long ago, I flew... I had to go out of town and I had to fly through the States. I flew through Detroit, it's a big hub. In case you're ever flying through a hub, a hub is a central area where many flights come and connect to other flights. And I was in line at the customs, and ahead of me was a couple, they were tourists, I think. And I could see the panic on their faces when the custom guy... Customs guy started speaking to them and asking them questions, and they were so nervous, and they could barely speak. And the more nervous they became, the more questions they got from the customs guy. So, I want to make going through customs as easy as possible for you by giving you a few tips. First thing you have to remember when you come to the customs guys: have all your forms completed properly. So, if you're coming into a States, you're going to be given a form, I think it's an I-94 form with all kinds of questions. Fill out everything correctly, properly. If you're not sure what something means, ask a flight attendant to help you, they will. Fill everything before you get to customs. Have all your documents; your passport, your return flight ticket. If you're going as a student, have your Visa. If you're going there to work, have your Visa, your work permit, whatever you need. All documents ready, all forms complete, ready to go. Then the most important thing that you can do when going through customs at an U.S. airport is relax. Okay? Very important to relax. Now, one thing you will notice about American customs officers, they never ever smile. They will never smile. They are always going to look mean, and tough, and questions, questions, questions. That's their job. They're nice people. Don't think anything badly of them. They're doing their job, they want to scare you so that you give them the information that they need. So, relax. Answer all their questions quickly and as short as possible. If they ask you a yes/no question, answer yes or no. Almost... In most cases, in 99% of the questions, don't say: "I don't know." You do know. You know everything that they're going to ask you. Yes, no, there, there, this long, that person, done. Okay. So, they can ask you any number of questions, but here are a few of the more common questions that they might ask you. Okay? So, be prepared, answer them quickly, go on your way, enjoy your vacation in the U.S. What is your final destination? It means: where are you going? Where is your last stop? So, if you're flying in to New York and then you're catching another flight to Kentucky, your final destination is Kentucky, not New York. So, you're going to Kentucky. If you're going to another country, so for example I was coming back to Canada. What is your final destination? Toronto. I was just flying through the U.S. How long will you be staying in the U.S.? Again, never say: "I don't know." You do know. You have a return ticket out. If you have an open ticket, say you have... "I have a one-year open ticket. I'm not sure when I'm going to go back, but within one year." Have that ticket ready to show him or her. Okay? How long will you be staying? Two days, a week, two weeks, whatever. What is the purpose of your visit? Why are you here? To visit family, work or business, tourism, vacation, or transit. Okay? I was there, just transit. Transiting. I was just catching a flight to my next place, which is Canada. I was just here to transit. No problem. Where will you be staying? Now, this is a very important question. If you are staying in the U.S., make sure you have your hotel address ready to tell the customs officer. If you're staying with a friend, have your friend's address ready to tell the customs officer. If you're staying in a dorm, if you're a student, say the name of the school, the dorm, have the address ready. Never say: "I don't know. I haven't figured it out yet." They want to know where to find you if they need to find you. Okay? Make sure you have an actual place to stay.
English Vocabulary - EVEN: even though, even if, even when...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Even English users sometimes have a problem with this word. EVEN has specific uses and knowing how to apply it will help you emphasize and point out surprising information. In this lesson we will see the word EVEN used in many ways, even though it might surprise you how. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-even/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson comes from a very common question I get from students. Students sometimes ask me... Like they ask me a question about grammar or whatever, and sometimes I say: "You know what? I'm not sure. I'll tell you tomorrow or I'll tell you the next day", etcetera. And then they say to me: "But you're the teacher, you should know." And I say to them, you know: "Even teachers sometimes need to learn and to continuously grow and find out new things for their students." And then of course the next question is: "What is 'even'?" And I say: "Okay, well there's your... our next lesson." Right? So today's word: "even". Many students... like they hear it all the time, but they don't really understand how it's being used. So today, I'm going to give you some examples because that's the best way to understand this word. Most of you have seen it as: "even though", "even if", or: "even when". There are other uses which we're going to look at in a minute, but first let's go over these. But first, what does..? What does the word: "even" suggest? Okay? When you use the word: "even", you're talking about something that's very surprising. Okay? It's against expectation. What is "expectation"? When you think something will happen because something else happened. For example: if I win a million dollars, you will... You would expect that I will buy a big house or that I will go on vacation or that I will stop working. Okay? So what we're going to see is that sometimes what you think will happen is exactly the opposite or different from what actually happens, and then that's when you use the word: "even". Let's look at the first example: "Even though I was late, my boss wasn't angry." Now, you would think: "You're late, your boss is angry." But I'm stressing that what should have been the case, he should have been angry or she should have been angry, but wasn't, even though I was late. So it's a very surprising situation. If I used only "though": "Though I was late, my boss wasn't angry." This just shows a regular contrast. Okay? Late should equal angry, it wasn't. This shows surprise because usually my boss gets angry when I'm late, - not that I'm late often -, but when I'm late, my boss gets really angry. But today, no, today my boss was calm, nothing going on. He must have had a good weekend, I don't know. Now: "if": "If I win the lottery, I won't have enough money to buy a house." That doesn't make sense. If you win the lottery, you have a lot of money so that's why I'm using: "if". And when I use: "if", I'm also adding the negative, the opposite of what is expected. "Even if I win the lottery, I won't have enough money to buy a house." Okay? It depends how much the lottery is. I think Lotto 649, that's the lottery in Ontario, I think it's three million right now. In Toronto, that'll buy you a little house, maybe. So: "Even if I win". Now: "even when". "If" is a hypothetical; maybe it will happen, maybe it won't happen, probably not. "When" we use for more realistic ideas, when something happens. "Even when he presented the evidence," - when he showed proof that something happened -, "no one believed him." Now, you think evidence, if somebody sees evidence, they believe what you're saying. But even when he presented the evidence, they didn't believe him. Very strange. I can... I put the word here "after": "Even after he showed the evidence..." If you want to talk about time lapse, this is... "When" shows at that time, "after" means later, but both work the same way in this sentence. Okay? So again: "even" means surprising or against expectations, but we are not limited to these three expressions. Let's look at some more. Okay, now another thing to remember about this word: "even" is that it sometimes gives you extra information. Just by using this word, you should be able to understand something else. Okay? So let's look at these examples. "No one thought Tom's joke was funny, not even Kathy." Now, only from this sentence, what can you understand about Kathy? One: you can understand that she always thinks Tom's jokes are funny, so that's why it's a little surprise that even she didn't think this was funny or you think that Kathy always laughs at every joke. Okay? So something about Kathy you can understand from this sentence even though it's not mentioned; you understand something about her personality or about her relationship with Tom, etcetera. Obviously, we need more information to know exactly what, but you understand that there's something else because of this word.
EITHER, NEITHER, SO, TOO - How to agree and disagree in English
 
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http://www.engvid.com Are you confused by words such as "too", "either", "neither", and "so"? Do you ever agree with an opinion that you really don't share? Or disagree when in fact you think the same thing? Sometimes this happens because you are not sure of which words to use to agree or disagree. After this grammar lesson, you should be able to get your opinion across more easily. Test yourself with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/either-neither-so-too/
Basic English Vocabulary - GET
 
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http://www.engvid.com Let's get started by looking at the word 'get' followed by participles and other words. 'Get' is one of the most frequently used words in English, but it can be confusing. "Get angry", "get going", and "get a burger" each use the word in a different way. This lesson will show you how you can use 'get' properly in different ways. You can also take a quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/basic-english-vocabulary-get/
Phrasal Verbs - FALL: fall for, fall in, fall behind, fall through...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Are you falling behind on your English lessons? I'll help you fall in line with the rest of us with this lesson on phrasal verbs using the verb 'fall'. You will know what it means when plans fall through, or when one of your friends falls for a trick or a girl. Make sure to take the quiz after you watch, to see how well you understand. http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-fall/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson, we're going to look at phrasal verbs again. I know everybody likes these. I've heard all the comments. So again, what are phrasal verbs? Phrasal verbs are a combination of a verb and a preposition that together have a very different meaning than the two words by themselves. Today's phrasal verbs are going to be with the verb "fall". "Fall apart", "fall out", "fall behind", "fall for", "fall through", "fall in", "fall in with", "fall back", "fall back on". Different meanings to "in" and "in with", "back, and "back on". So let's start. "Fall apart" -- two meanings we're going to look at today. The first one is, basically, come apart or disintegrate or break off. So if any of you have ever cooked ribs -- do you like ribs? You know, like, big stack of ribs. Boil them. Put them on the barbecue. Cook them really, really well. Then, the meat just falls apart, just falls off the bone. Very, very delicious. Another meaning of "fall apart" is to have a nervous breakdown. Excuse me. A "nervous breakdown" would be -- when someone has a "nervous breakdown" -- I'm sorry -- we say they have "fallen apart". They have lost control of themselves emotionally. So an example. When does a person fall apart? For example, if I had a girlfriend for a very, very long time, and one day she comes home and she says, "Bye. I'm leaving." Maybe I'll go crazy. I'll fall apart. I won't be able to work. I won't be able to sleep. I won't be able to do anything. That's not necessarily the way things would happen, but for some people, that's how it happens. They just fall apart. Okay. "Fall out" -- so I'm walking down the street. I'm happy. I'm bouncing around. Something falls out of my pocket. Basically, it comes out and falls to the ground. That's the very basic term, "fall out". Another meaning for "fall out" is when you have a fight or a quarrel with someone. You talk about something; you get into a disagreement; you fight; and then, you don't speak to each other anymore. So basically, you had a "falling out" -- if you want the noun of it. A "falling out", a fight. Okay? So a "falling out", a fight. Another meaning -- a third meaning -- is basically consequences. For example, in a war, there's a big bomb dropped somewhere, and then all the fall out -- all the things that fell out -- then, all the results. "The fall out for this attack was that many people were left homeless or that many people were killed or that the fight extended." So the "fall out" means the result or the consequence of something that happened, usually something bad. And then, the consequences, of course, are also bad. "Fall behind" -- again, more than one meaning. The first meaning of "fall behind" means to be a little bit behind. All my friends are walking. I'm walking with my friends. They're walking fast, and I start to fall behind. So another word is "lag". "Lag" means to be behind, not keep pace with. We also use this when we talk about debts. Like, for example, you have to pay bills. Every month, the phone company sends you a bill. Then you pay it and you pay it. But one month, you missed. So then, the next month, you have to pay the last month's bill and this month's bill. But you don't have enough money, so you let a little bit more go. Now, you're starting to fall behind on your payments. Eventually, the bank will come and take your phone, take your car, take your puppy -- whatever you have that's worth any money. That's basically "fall behind". Of course, if I drop this here, it will fall behind me. But that's too simple. "Fall for" -- a couple of interesting meanings. "Fall for" -- one, when you "fall for something" or "fall for someone" means you basically fall in love. Okay? I went to the bar. I met this girl. I just "fell for" her right then and there. I fell in love. I lost control. I wanted this person. But then, her friend came and told me that for $50, he will give me her phone number. So I gave him $50, and he ran away. I "fell for" his trick. Okay? So "fall for" means believe something that is not true. Okay? If you are that type of person, you are gullible. I think I spelled that right. I'll have to check that later. "Fall for" means believe in a trick or believe in something that is not true, or fall in love. "Fall through" -- "fall through" means when you have a plan or you try to do something, but then at the end, it just didn't work. Your attempt failed, so it "fell through".
Cooking Vocabulary in English - chop, grill, saute, boil, slice...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Love to eat? Share your recipes and give advice to those who are lost in the kitchen. In this lesson we will look at some basic cooking vocabulary that might make food a new experience for you and your friends and family. You'll learn words like chop, boil, saute, grill, slice, and more. Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/cooking-vocabulary/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a very interesting one. It's one of my favourites. Why? Because I love to eat. Actually, a long time ago, before I was a teacher, before I did any of that, I went to culinary school. "Culinary" -- I learned how to cook. I was going to be a chef. But then I worked at a restaurant, actually I worked in a few restaurants and I decided: "Nope, I don't want to be a chef anymore." But I still like to cook, I still love to eat. So some of my students were asking me for kitchen vocab, some culinary cooking vocab. First, let's start with this question: "What's cookin'?" Now, it could mean: "Ah, something smells good. What's cookin'?" Means what are you making, what dish are you making? But sometimes, people will ask this as slang: "What's cookin?" means: "What's happening? How are things? How are you?" Just so you know. A good idiom to recognize. So we're looking at kitchen vocab. When we're talking about cooking, we're talking about culinary arts. Okay? So you ever hear this expression: "culinary" means about cooking, about food. Now, before I get into these actions, some of these actions that you will use while you are cooking, it's a moral imperative that I spend a minute about these two words. What does "moral imperative" mean? It means that to be a good person, I must tell you something about these words. First: "a chef", a chef is a person who studied cooking, went to school and studied, has worked in many restaurants, and has practiced for a long time in his art, his cooking skills. This person - or her -, this person probably has a diploma and is usually the boss of a kitchen in a restaurant somewhere. Now, "a cook" is a person who is just starting to cook or somebody who just makes food at home. Anybody can be a cook. So "cook" could be a noun, the person, or: "to cook", verb, to prepare dishes. Now, very, very, very important and I must stress this: "cook", the pronunciation of this word is very important. It's: "uh", "uh", "uhk". "Cook", okay? "Cook". Sounds like, it rhymes with: "look" or: "took" or: "book". Okay? "Book", "took", "look", "cook". It does not, not rhyme with: "rock" or: "sock" or: "lock". Okay? Not. So if somebody says to you: "Oh, I'm a good cock." Say: "I'm happy for you. Bye-bye." Okay? Because they're talking about something else completely. "Cook", be very careful about this word. Okay, let's get started. Let's say you're on the internet, you want to look for some new dishes, you want to surprise your family with a nice new meal from a different country maybe. You get on the internet and you find a "recipe", recipe for a nice dish. But, you're not sure about how to make it because you don't recognize some of these actions. "Pot", "pan", all of these things you can understand. My little stove here, and my little oven here, I'm sure you can understand. Let's look at the actions. "To saute", now this word actually comes from the French, but we use it in English as well. "To saute" means in a skillet or in a pan, to cook lightly. So you have your pan, your flat pan, put a little bit of oil, put in your onions on the stove, and you saute, you flip, you cook it a little bit to a little bit brown, and then you put other things in it or you add it to other things. "Boil/simmer", these are very similar actions. "Boil", you put something in a pot, like something like this and high, full of water. You put the heat very, very high. So boiling is very high heat, big bubbles, and very fast moving. "Bluh, bluh, bluh, bluh, bluh." Right? Like very boiling, so the bubbles go very fast and very high. "Simmer" means lower heat, small bubbles moving slowly. Okay? So when you're making a nice soup or a stew, first you get everything boiling, and then you reduce the heat and let it simmer for like an hour; get all the flavours to blend together really nicely. Then you have: "broil/roast". So "broil" and "roast", we're using the oven. If you want to cook something like very quickly and get the top like very crispy, you broil. "Broil" means heat from the top, so the heat is going like this on to the food. "Roast" means the heat is coming from the bottom and the sides, so it cooks the inside and takes a little bit longer. Okay. "Grill". "Grill", like for example: when you barbeque. When you're barbequing, you are grilling. You have the lines of the grill, you put your steak on it, then you flip it, etcetera. That's grilling, usually with fire, coals, lines.
Writing - Transitions - in addition, moreover, furthermore, another
 
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http://www.engvid.com One of the most important tools for creating good flow in writing is the transition. Transitions are the bridges that allow a reader to move from one idea to the next without getting lost in the language. In this writing lesson, we'll look specifically at transitions to join similar, supporting ideas. I'll teach you how to use 'in addition', 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'another', and more. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/writing-transitions/
'Knock' in Phrasal Verbs - knock out, knock up, knock over...
 
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http://www.engvid.com Need a knockout lesson? This is it. If you've wondered why girls get knocked up, men get knocked out, or Prada bags get knocked off, this phrasal verb lesson will help you out. After watching the lesson, take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-knock/
Learn English Phrasal Verbs with BRING: bring on, bring about, bring forward...
 
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Understand and use English like a native speaker by learning these phrasal verbs. Today's phrasal verbs all have the word 'bring' in them: bring up, bring in, bring about , and many others. Hear examples of how these expressions are used in daily language, and practice them on my quiz. Don't let phrasal verbs bring you down; bring them on, and we'll bring them to light! http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-phrasal-verbs-with-bring-bring-on-bring-about-bring-forward/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb: "bring". Once again, phrasal verbs: A verb and a preposition that together have a very different meaning than the words by themselves, sometimes more than one meaning, as we're going to see here. So we're going to look at: "bring up", "bring about", "bring around", "bring back", "bring down", "bring in", "bring on", "bring off", and "bring to". These are the ones we're going to look at today. And again, each of them has at least one meaning, sometimes... More often than not, more than one meaning. So: "bring up", a few meanings to this one. The most commonly used one is to bring up something means to raise, but not raise like physically, raise in terms of conversation. So if we're going to talk... We're going to have a conversation and I want to talk about something specific, I'm going to find an opportunity to bring it up in conversation. So I'm going to raise that topic, and we're going to talk about it, and it's going to be the focus of the conversation. So if you're going to a meeting with your boss and you're thinking: "Oh, it's time for my promotion", somehow you'll find a way to bring it up into the conversation and eventually talk about it. You can also bring up a child. So you can raise a child, that's the one... The verb most people use about children, you raise children, but you also bring them up. Now, it doesn't mean that you physically lift them. It means you educate them, you feed them, you teach them about life, you prepare them for the world they're going to live in. Okay? So you bring them up. Another thing sometimes people use "bring up" is to throw up, puke, vomit. So, today I had a really bad lunch. I hope I don't bring it up all over this video. But I won't. Don't worry, I'm okay. I had a nice lunch. So: "bring up" sometimes used as vomit. There's too many slang words for vomit. "Bring about", two meanings for this one. One is to cause to happen. Okay? So something... One situation exists, this situation will likely bring about this result. Okay? If we talk about military spending, so the government has decided to go to war in this part of the world, but all the major economists are warning that this war will bring about the destruction of our country economically. Okay? The war will bring about economic hardships to this country. We can't afford it. So: "bring about". Now, a little side note, not really anything to do with phrasals, but I know all of you think of the words: "effect" and "affect". A... "A" is the verb, "e" is the noun, but "effect" with an "e" is the same as "bring about", it means cause to happen. This is a verb. So "e" can be a verb and a noun, "a" can be a verb and a noun, but that's a whole other lesson. "Bring about", "effect", same meaning. Okay. "Bring around". Oh, sorry. Another "bring about". If you're ever on a ship and you need to turn that ship and bring it back to the port, then you have to bring it about. Basically means turn around. But we use this mostly with ships, bring about. Okay. "Bring around", a few meanings to this as well. "Bring around" basically means to revive someone. So somebody is passed out, they fainted or whatever happened, they're lying on the ground, they look like asleep. You're trying to bring them around, means recover consciousness. Okay? "Bring around" means also bring a friend over to meet other friends, like a casual visit. And the most common use: If you have a very set opinion about something and I have a very different opinion, I will do my best to bring you around to my opinion. So I want to persuade you, I want to make you change your mind and bring you around to view the situation from the way I view it, from my perspective. So I'm going to bring you around to my point of view. That's the most common use of "bring around". "Bring back", so, again, there's the literal bring back. So you bought something from a store, you took it home, like a shirt, you tried it on, you realize: "You know what? I don't like it." So you bring it back to the store. Now you can also say: "take it back", but technically you're taking it with you, so you're bringing it back to the store. Now, sometimes, people, especially celebrities, they try to bring back something that used to be very popular.
Learn English Grammar: EACH OTHER & ONE ANOTHER
 
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http://www.engvid.com Is there a difference between 'EACH OTHER' and 'ONE ANOTHER'? These are both very useful expressions you can use when you are speaking or writing English. In this advanced English grammar lesson, you will learn how to use these expressions, and also learn about the broader topics of reciprocal pronouns and reflexive pronouns. Watch the video now to understand the differences between these expressions, so that you can use them correctly. If you watch engVid lessons with a friend, you can test each other's understanding. Students studying alone can test themselves at http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-grammar-each-other-one-another/ . TRANSCRIPT Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns. This is something that gives people trouble often it seems, so I'm here to explain it a little bit to show you when to use it, when not to use it. First of all, what does this word mean: "reciprocal"? "To reciprocate"-that's the verb-"to reciprocate" means to return an action. So I do something for you, you do something for me. The action is reciprocal; goes one way, goes the other way. Doesn't have to be the same action, but it's some sort of... Returning a favour basically or returning help. So we can use: "each other" or "one another" to show a reciprocal action. These are called reciprocal pronouns. Okay? "Each" is a pronoun, "one" is a pronoun, "another" is a pronoun. These are in groups, they are reciprocal pronouns. Now, quite often, people mix these... They mix the use of this with "themselves". Okay? "Themselves" is not a reciprocal pronoun. "Themselves" is called a reflexive pronoun. I won't get into too much detail about reflexive here, but a "reflexive pronoun" is a pronoun when you have the subject acting on the object, and the object is the same as the subject. So: "I hit myself." I am the subject, I am also the object. I hit myself, it's reflecting back to me. Reciprocal, there's always somebody else or other people involved besides myself. Okay? Besides me. "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Now, I'm not sure how old some of you are. I know I'm maybe giving away my age a little bit, but Tom and Jerry were very popular cartoon characters when I was a kid. Tom... Tom was the cat I believe, Jerry was the mouse, and they always used to hate each other. Near the end, when I got older, they became friends; it was very disappointing. It was better when they hated each other and always used to do bad things to each other because they were... It was kind of funny. "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Tom hated Jerry, Jerry hated Tom; the feeling was reciprocal. Okay? Here, it's not an action, it's a feeling, but we can use it in the same way. We use it like an action verb. "Tom and Jerry hated one another." Basically, the meaning is the same. Now, there's an argument between grammarians, people who study grammar, who think that "each other" should only involve two characters, "one another" should involve more than two characters. Realistically though, they're interchangeable; you can use one or the other. Everybody will get the exact same meaning, regardless which one you use. Okay? Now: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves." Does this mean the same as these two? No, it does not. If we say: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves." means Tom hated Tom, Jerry hated Jerry. No relation between the two. Tom hated himself, Jerry hated himself. Okay? So this is not a reciprocal action; this is a reflexive. Now, another situation we have is with the apostrophe. Okay? "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at each other's weddings." "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at one another's weddings." "Wedding", I'm going to have to look that one up. "Each other's weddings" though for sure. It basically means the same idea. One to you, one back to me; reciprocal actions. And you can use it. Now, some people put these together, especially language learners who are a little bit new to the language, they say: "Each other". Now, keep in mind, a native speaker will take the "ch" sound with the "o" and mix it - "eachother", but they are two separate words, you can't mix them. And some people also think you can put the apostrophe after the "s", this is also not the case because we're talking about one person to one person, so the "s" always comes... The apostrophe-sorry-always comes before the "s" to show possession. Okay? It's a little bit confusing, but very useful to know how to use these. Actions going two-way. If you're not sure, go to www.engvid.com, there'll be a quiz there where you can try out these examples. And if you have any questions, please ask; I'll be very happy to answer them. See you again.
Phrasal Verbs with CARRY: "carry out", "carry away", "carry on"...
 
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A phrasal verb is usually a verb plus a preposition that we use in a different context than the verb's original meaning. For example, did you know that "to carry a tune" means to sing well? To "carry" literally means to move something while supporting it, but it can mean different things when used in phrasal verbs. In this lesson, you will learn what it means to "carry out your tasks", "carry on" in class or at work, "get carried away", and more. QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-with-carry/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs, using the verb "carry". And again, phrasal... Phrasal verbs are verbs plus a preposition that, together, means something else than the two words themselves. Now, I know you've seen many of these phrasal verb lessons. Don't worry, I think we're almost done, because I've gone through most of them. "Carry", usually you carry... You carry a basket, you carry a child, you move something in your arms. You carry it. Right? So, most of those have to do with that idea of carrying something. The most common of these is "carry on". Okay? What does it mean to "carry on"? A few meanings. One is to continue. So, my staff is having a meeting, and I say: "Oh, sorry to interrupt everyone, but I need to make an announcement." I make an announcement. "Everybody understands. Yes? Okay, carry on, continue." Okay? It could also mean to continue something that's been going on for a long time. So, for example, Jimmy wants to carry on his father's tradition of having a barbeque every Sunday with the whole family, so to keep something going, like a tradition, a custom, etc. "Carry on with" is a little bit different. Actually, it's quite different. When you "carry on with someone", it usually mean you were flirting. Now, I'm not sure if you know this word, "to flirt". "To flirt" means to, like, have some fun with somebody of the opposite sex, or it could mean to have an actual affair, to have an affair with someone, to carry on with someone. Now, there's quite a few differences between British English and American English. In British English, "carry on" can also mean to talk, and talk, and talk, and talk, usually complaining about something. "Oh, stop carrying on about that. We don't care anymore." In American English, it would just be go on. "Stop. Oh, you're going on and on about this. Just forget it. Let it go. Move on. Continue." Okay? So, British/American, slightly different. "Carry over". "Carry over", it could mean carry something from here over to here, physically, but it could also mean to move something to another time, another place. For example, the meeting we had, we had too many things to speak about, we didn't finish everything on time, so we will carry it over to tomorrow. Tomorrow we will start again, and finish what we need to do. So, "carry over", move to a different time, place, position. "Carry back". Sometimes, you know, I'm driving in my car and I turn on the radio, and I hear this song, and it just carries me back to when I was a teenager in high school, and when I was just having fun. So, "carry back" means sort of like remind, but more in terms of nostalgia. Nostalgia. It just takes you back, carries you back to another time and place, a different mindset, etc. "Carry around". So, I can... If I have a baby, I could put on my little pouch thing on my back, put my baby on the back, and carry it around as I go for a little walk. So, you can, again, physically carry something around, but you can also carry around baggage, emotional baggage. So, for example, if you feel very, very guilty about something you did or something that happened, you can carry that guilt around with you for your whole life. It's like a weight on your shoulders, and you're carrying it around, even though it's just inside your head. Okay? So, that person is carrying around too much baggage, emotional baggage. "Carry off" means to complete something successfully. So, I had a big presentation at work, and after... After the presentation, my boss comes up to me, he goes: "You carried that off great. Good job." Right? I did it, I finished it, successful, everybody was happy. "Carry off" also means to take away. Okay? I picked her up and carried her off into the sunset, my darling, whoever she might be. "Out", "carry out" basically means to do, or more correctly is to perform. You carry out a task. Okay? You do something. If the boss asks you to do something and he wants you to carry... Carry it out as soon as possible. Okay? In British English, "carry out" is the same as American "take out". So you go to a restaurant, you order your food, and carry out; to go.
Phrasal Verbs with BACK: "back up", "back off", "back out"...
 
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Do not back out of this lesson because you are about to learn common English phrasal verbs with "back"! You will learn the meaning of "back up", "back away", "back off", "back in", and more. Don't forget to back up your new knowledge by doing our quiz at http://www.engvid.com/ Don't miss this useful lesson. Espera, ve esta clase, no te eches para atrás, porque estás a punto de aprender todos los verbos en inglés con la palabra "back". En esta clase aprenderás el significado de "back up", "back away", "back up", "back in", y más. No te olvides de respaldar el conocimiento que has adquirido con la prueba que presentamos al final. No te pierdas esta útil clase de inglés. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, everybody's favourite: phrasal verbs. Today we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb "back". And again, as always a review: phrasal verb is a combination of a verb plus a preposition. So today we're looking at "back up", "back away", "back down", "back off", "back in", "back into", and "back out". You will hear these in everyday speech, just like most phrasal verbs are very commonly used. And unfortunately, you just have to remember them and use them. So let's start with "back up". Most of you, I think, know "back up" from using a computer. If you have lots of files on your computer, maybe you download some things, maybe you have some projects on your desktop - you don't want to lose these, so you want to back them up on a hard disk, or a CD, or a USB stick, whatever the case. So "to back up" means to make a copy of your files. Okay? "Back up" can also mean exactly what the words mean: back up, to go backwards. Okay? You can back up your car, it means just go back a bit, back yourself up a little bit. Now, "back up", a very common use is support. If your friend is going to do something dangerous, like mountain climbing, maybe you want to go to the top of the mountain to back him up. You're going to hold the rope, you're going to give him support. Okay? You're going to make sure he doesn't hurt himself. It could also mean "reinforce". Excuse me. So, for example, if police are chasing a criminal and the criminal has some friends with guns, the police will call headquarters and ask them to send some backup. So, in that case, we're going to use it as one word. So "backup" means reinforcements; extra police to come and back up the first police officers to support them to make sure everybody's okay. "Back away". So, "back away" is similar... A little similar to "back up", except we just say: "Back away." So let's say somebody fainted on the ground, and I am trying to give CPR. And I'm trying to help this person, and suddenly, a crowd comes. So I say to everybody: "Okay. Back away, back away." It means: get away, move. Okay? Very simple. Very straightforward. "Back away". "Back down", now, you come to me and you start an argument. You think that A is correct. I think that B is correct, and we argue, argue, argue until finally one of us backs down. Now, "to back down" means to retreat or to go back from a confrontation. A little bit like "give up", but not give up. Means I become weaker, you become stronger, and you're going to win the argument. So, "to back down" means a little bit to give up on a fight. Okay. Okay, we'll leave that one there. "Back off". Now, "back off" is similar to "back away", except if I tell people to "back away", it means to get back and make some space, but if I say to "back off", it means you're threatening me. I feel you're trying to hurt me or you're trying to do something bad to me, and I get angry and I say: "Back off. Don't make me angry, because we'll start a fight, or something will happen, and we don't want that, so back off." Be very careful about the pronunciation: "back off" sounds like a little something else off, but it's not. It just means go away; don't bother me, don't fight with me. "Back in". Now, very limited uses for this one, but let's say you're driving a car and there's a parking spot there, so you want to back into it, like you want to do a parallel park. Or you want to go into the garage, but you don't want to go forward, so you back the car into the garage. Okay? "Back into", also, means the same as "back in". Like you can back into a spot or into a space, but also we use "back into", it means as you're moving back, you hit something. So you backed into the wall. Okay? You backed into the trash can, etc.
Improve Your English Vocabulary: 6 ways to say 'WANT'
 
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Do you want to be more fluent in English? I'll teach you different ways native English speakers say "want". You'll learn new vocabulary used in conversational English. Saying things like 'crave', 'feel like', and 'in the mood for' instead of saying 'want' will make you sound more natural and intelligent. It's also necessary to understand English slang. Dying to know more? Check out this lesson! And you'll also want to take the quiz afterwards: http://www.engvid.com/improve-your-english-vocabulary-6-ways-to-say-want/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit interesting because what we're doing is looking at other ways to say "want". Now, you're thinking: "It's a simple word, just say 'want' every time." But native speakers like to mix up their language a little bit; they like to use different things, different expressions for different moods, different feelings, they want to emphasize something or they want to really exaggerate something, make it more than it is. So we're going to look at different ways to say "want". I have eight different expressions for you. Now, I know that everybody knows this one: "would like". -"Would you like some tea?" -"Yes, I would like some tea. Thank you. Please and thank you." Very polite, a little bit more formal than "want", no problem. But then we have "feel like". -"Hmm. Let's go out for dinner tonight." -"Hmm. What do you feel like?" -"I don't know. I feel like a pizza. I feel like a pizza." It means I want a pizza. That's what I have the feeling for. But basically, this means: "I want this." I could say: "I want a pizza", but that's kind of boring. "I feel like a pizza" means: "Mm, that would really satisfy me right now. That would make me feel good." In the same way... Oh, okay, we have it down here. "I could go for". -"Hmm. What could you go for?" -"I could go for a hamburger. I could go for a lobster." Go for... And usually we say "could go for", because it's just an idea. Right? I might not get it, but "I could go for" means I want this. Whether we can have this or not, I'm not sure, but that's what I'm craving right now. That's the mood I'm in right now. Okay? So, "I could go for a hamburger" means let's go get a hamburger, if one's available. And you just heard me say "in the mood for". "In the mood for" is similar to "feel like". "Mood" is basically a feeling, but it's more of a mental feeling than a physical feeling. So if I'm in the mood for something, that's what I want. That's the only thing that will satisfy me right now. This is what I want now; nothing else. Later, I'll be in the mood for something else. Okay? So: -"What are you in the mood for?" -"I don't know. I'm in the mood for pizza." I already used pizza. Let me think of something else. "I'm in the mood for a falafel", because that's yummy. "Craving". Now, "craving", basically means want, but a very, very strong want, like a really strong desire for something. Right? Like nothing else will satisfy you except for this particular thing. Your mouth is already tasting it before you even have it. It's a craving. -"I'm going to go get some sweets. What can I get for you?" -"Mm. I'm craving a donut." It means that's what I really want right now. That's what I, mm, like the juices are coming. I'm salivating already. "Salivating" means like the juices are flowing in the mouth because I want something delicious. "Dying for". "I'm dying for something" means I really, really, really want. Again, all of these basically mean "want", but there's different degrees of want. So if you're dying for something, it means probably you haven't had it for a long time, and that's why you're dying for it. You feel like if you don't get it, you're going to die. Of course, you're exaggerating, but that gets that... Gets the idea across much more strongly. Now, we have another couple of expressions. If something will "hit the spot"... So, for example: "Wings will really hit the spot right now" means the spot is right here and a little bit here, too. Right? So if something hits the spot, means that's the only thing that's going to satisfy you. So if you say something is going to hit the spot or something would hit the spot, usually... If something would hit the spot, then that's what you really want right now. This is a very common idiom, actually. The last one, I just put it in for fun. It's pretty rare. You won't hear it very often. It comes from Shakespeare from the play King... Sorry, Richard III, he says: "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse." He will trade everything he has if somebody will just bring him a horse. That's all he wants, a horse.
Learn English: How to understand native speakers
 
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Do you find it hard to understand casual English conversations? It's not your fault! Native speakers don't speak clearly, but you still need to understand them. In daily conversation, we take shortcuts in our speech. This is usually done by "dropping" consonant sounds. In today's video I'll explain why this happens, and how you can improve your understanding of native speaker pronunciation. You'll get to hear some of the most common words and expressions that English speakers drop consonants from so you'll be prepared when you hear them. I'll also teach you strategies to improve your English listening skills and recommend some listening exercises you can do while listening to music and watching movies. http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-how-to-understand-native-speakers/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit tricky because I want to help you understand native speakers. I want you to understand how they speak. So, for example, if you hear somebody say: "What did you do that for?" You should be able to understand what the person said. Now, whether you understood what I just said or not, not important yet; we're going to get to that. So "Native Speaker Pronunciation". Now, before I get into this lesson, I want you to understand: I don't want to teach you how to speak like this. Okay? I don't want you to speak like this. I want you to speak good, clear, strong English, just like I'm speaking to you now. But I also want you to understand that when I am with my Canadian friends, for example, I speak a little bit more like this. It's just natural, it's habit. It's not a good habit, but it's habit. Okay? Now, I had a few comments on www.engvid.com, quite a few people asking me: Why do I understand you? Like why do you understand me, Adam, but when I watch a TV show or when I watch a movie, I don't know what they're saying? Why? Why such a big difference? Well, first of all, let me say that I am speaking to you, knowing what you can and cannot understand, for the most part. So I don't speak to you like I... Like I would with my Canadian friends who are native English speakers. I don't speak to you like Hollywood actors speak on the movie. Okay? I'm speaking to an audience. I know that they need to listen to me, that you need to understand everything I say, so I enunciate, I speak very clearly. I stress each syllable so that you can catch every word I say. But I'm going to talk about when and where to speak like this in a minute. So, I did actually do a lesson about how to speak like a native speaker before. You can learn how to make elisions, how to connect sounds, how to... When you have two sounds that are the same, to drop one of them. This is a little bit different. We're going to look at dropped sounds inside words. Now, these words, for example: "listen", no "t"; "plumber", no "b"; "dumb", no "b". These words are not dropped sounds words. These are just the way these words are constructed; we are supposed to make the "t" silent, we are supposed to make the "b" silent. That's just how the word is built. But native speakers, native English speakers... And I'm sure this is the same in your native language if you pay attention carefully to how you speak and how your friends speak, we like to take shortcuts. Okay? We don't like too many syllables. We like to have fewer and fewer syllables to make the speech go faster. We don't want to think too much about what we're saying. So, for example, here are a few words. Now, I'm looking at consonant clusters. Does everybody remember what a consonant is? B, c, d, f, g, etc. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u. All the other letters, consonants. So when we have consonant clusters, these are groups when you have consonants bunched together; you have a few of them together. When we have words with this situation, we tend to drop one, maybe two of those consonants. So, for example, the word "probably". Pro-bab-ly, pro-bab-ly-. I have three syllables in this word, but when I'm speaking in natural speed, I say: "Probly". -"Are you coming to the party tomorrow night?" -"Yeah, probly." Now you're watching me on a TV or you're watching me in a movie, and you're thinking: -"What?" -"Probly." -"What?" -"Probly." Okay? All I'm saying is "probably", but what I'm doing, because I have "b, b, l", I have a little cluster of consonant sounds, I'll just drop this one; I don't need it. You'll understand me without it, right? I think with another native speaker. "Probly". "Good bye", even two consonants, ah, too much. "Gobye. Gobye". I barely even say the o's, I just say like: "Gobye". Okay? "Old friend". Now, in the other video, I told you if the letters... The very last letter and the first letter are the same, you can drop one, but we do it anyway, even if they're not the same. "I have an ol' friend. Ol' friend who I met for dinner last night. Oh, I met an ol' friend from high school."
English Grammar - Causative
 
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http://www.engvid.com Need to get your hair cut? You can have your friend do it for you. These sentences both use a sentence structure known as the CAUSATIVE. In this grammar lesson we will look at this structure in both the active and passive forms. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-causative/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is the causative. Now, I get asked many times how to construct and use the causative structure. First of all, "What is the causative", you're wondering? If you have someone do something for you, then you are using the causative voice. For example, if you have the waiter bring you a glass of water, this is a causative. If you have your hair cut, that is a causative. The difference -- active and passive -- we will look at that in a moment. First thing we need to do is understand how to construct this sentence structure. So we're going to have -- I broke it down into little pieces, everything that you can understand. The difference between a causative sentence and a regular sentence is we use an agent in the causative. We have a subject; we have the causative verb; we have the agent -- the person or thing that is going to do something for you; we have the verb; and we have the object. So first, the causative verb. There aren't that many that you will use. These are the four most common ones: have, make, let, get. There are others, but the others are so obvious that we don't need to worry about them too much, like "ask". "He asked someone to bring him something." It's very clear. I think most people know how to use it. It's these four that give people problems, especially these three. Why? Because I'm going to use a base verb with them. With "get", I'm going to use an infinitive verb, "to" verb. Okay? So again, subject -- "I" for example -- "had" -- you can go past. Whatever tense you're looking for -- future, past, present -- this is going to take the tense, not this. Your causative verb is going to take the tense. " 'I had' someone, 'I have', or 'I am having' someone, 'I will have' someone cut my hair." For example. I need a haircut, actually, now that I think about it. So, "I had the barber -- in this case, cutting hair -- cut -- base -- my hair -- object." Okay? The main thing to remember is that the agent can be a person or a thing, okay? "I had" -- well, we'll talk about that in the passive. "I had the package delivered. "That's object, still. "I had the car drive to somewhere else." It's a little bit strange if you have an automatic car. I'll think of a different example for you after that, okay? But agent, person, thing. Object could be direct object, the person. It could be indirect object, so it's a thing or a person, what or who. So, "I had the barber cut my hair." Now, what do these mean, these four verbs? Excuse me. These three -- have, make, and get -- basically mean cause. You're causing someone to do something. But you're wondering, "Okay. All of them mean cause. When do I use which one?" Right? It's a little bit of a nuance, very subtle differences. When you "have someone do something", basically, you're commissioning them; you're paying them. "I will have the painter paint my house." "I will have the mechanic fix my car." These are services. You're paying someone to do something. "I will make someone do something." You're a little bit forcing them, right? "I will make my little brother clean my room. Why? Because he's my little brother. I'm bigger than him. I can make him do things. So I will." Get. "Get" is more like "convince". You persuade someone to do something for you, right? "I will get my sister to do my laundry. Why? Because she's nice, and she likes me, and I know how to speak to her. That's why". "Let" is, basically, "give someone permission". So very clear. Have, make, get -- causing it in its own way; let -- allow. Okay. Then, this -- all of this is the active causative. "We make someone do something". But we can also use the passive causative, in which case we have the subject; we have the causative verb again; we have the object, next; and we have the verb in a past participle form. Notice that we don't -- I didn't include the agent. You can include the agent. Usually, it's obvious; you don't need to, right? So if I had my hair cut, who did it? The barber. Do I need to say it was the barber? No. You understand that, right? So the agent is optional. I'll put it in brackets, in parentheses.
7 colorful English idioms
 
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http://www.engvid.com Do you want to develop a colourful vocabulary? Learn the meanings of these seven phrases, and you can start using them in your everyday life. I chose these examples of idioms because of how useful they are at home, in the workplace, and at school. These expressions are commonly used in spoken English. Watch this lesson, and add some decoration to your English! Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/7-colorful-english-idioms/ Idiom list: see through rose-tinted glasses give someone the green light with flying colors tickled pink paint the town red blue-collared / white-collared see things in black and white TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to engVid. My name's Adam. Nice to see you again. Today's lesson is about idioms. Everybody loves to learn new idioms because they're used every day. Sometimes they're a little bit hard to understand. Today, we're looking at colourful idioms, idioms that use colour in their expression. Before I begin, "colourful", you'll notice I used "u". I'm Canadian, we use the "u" just like the British people. Americans use only the "o", no "u". I used both just to make everybody happy. So just so you understand, it's not a spelling mistake either way. Let's begin. So I have a few idioms here. The thing about idioms, they never mean what the words say; you have to actually understand what the idiom means and how to use it. So, if someone sees the world or sees a situation "through rose-tinted glasses". "Glasses" are glasses you wear on your head. "Rose-tinted", there's a little bit of a pink shade on the glass. So you're seeing the world a little bit pinkish, like the colour of the rose. That means you're very optimistic. Even in a bad situation, you're going to see everything as good. You're seeing the world through rose-tinted glasses. Right? You work at a company and they're about to layoff half of the staff; half of the people are going home, no more job. And you think: "Oh, this is a great opportunity for me to find a new job and get a... advance my career." So I am seeing the situation through rose-tinted glasses. I don't see the bad economy, I don't see the fact that I'm 55 years old and I don't have any skills except for what I do in my job, but I will be okay. "Rose-tinted glasses". "Give someone the green light." You often hear this about governments giving the army the green light to attack. "To give the green light", to give permission. Okay? Go ahead, like a green light in traffic. You see the green light, press the gas, you go. So, for example: The... excuse me. The board of directors gave the CEO the green light to layoff half his staff, even the ones wearing rose-tinted glasses. Okay? So everybody's going home; no more work. "With flying colors", we always add this expression to the end of an event or action. So, for example: "He passed his interview with flying colours." With flying colours means very, very successful; he did very, very well. He went to a job interview, he passed with flying colours. He got offered the job. Okay? If you're "tickled pink", means you're very, very happy. Like tickled, tickle, funny - right? You're tickled pink, you get all pink in the face, you're very happy. So, Tom's grandfather was very... was tickled pink when he found out that Tom and his wife were pregnant. Now, I say: "Tom and his wife were pregnant," because it's common for couples to think of themselves as pregnant, even though it's only the woman, of course. "Paint the town red." This is a very good expression. You're studying for your English exams. Okay? You're very hard... studying very hard, very hard, very hard. You finish your exams, you're free. This weekend, you're going to go paint the town red, means you're going to go party. You're going to have a very good time, you're going to spend all night drinking, and partying, and clubs, and dancing, and people. Have a very good time, you're going to paint the town red; do everything. "Blue-collared worker/white-collared worker". This might be a very common expression for you. "Blue-collared". So, first of all, a collar, if you have a shirt with a tie let's say or no tie. This is the collar-sorry about the tapping-you have a collar. If it's blue, means you're working in a factory or a garage; you're a mechanic or you're working in some skilled job. If you're a white-collared worker, if the colour of your collar is white, means you're working in an office, you're some kind of professional. Okay?
IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction
 
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http://www.engvid.com The IELTS and TOEFL essay's success is determined by its introduction. In this writing lesson we will look at how to construct an introduction paragraph that will not only make reading easier for the grader, but will also keep you focused on what you need to say. It really is as simple as 1, 2, 3, 4. Test yourself with the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/ielts-toefl-writing-task-2-introduction/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Nice to see you again. Today's lesson is for IELTS and TOEFL students, and so because these students need a little extra practice in listening to more natural speed English, I will speak a little bit faster. If you're a beginner English learner, watch anyway. It's still good practice, but don't worry if I'm speaking a little bit too fast. So more specifically, I'm going to be looking at the Writing -- Task 2, the essay of the IELTS and/or TOEFL. They're very similar. That's why I'm doing them together. There're not big differences, but I will point them out. And what I'm doing is I'm concentrating on the introduction today, the introduction paragraph. I'm not showing you the whole essay; I'm just showing you the introduction. Now, you're wondering, "Why? It's just the introduction. It's a short one, right?" No. This is probably the most important paragraph in your whole essay. This is where you, basically, make or break your score, okay? Why? Because here is where the reader understands what you're about to do. This is where the grader -- the person who's giving you your score -- understands if you understood the question; understands if you know what you're talking about; and understands if you knew how to plan well, okay? Very, very important the first paragraph, the introduction. So what are you going to do? Of course you're going to plan first. You're not going to start writing. Do not write one word of your essay until you have your plan ready. Once you have your plan ready, your essay is done. You just have to, basically, translate this plan into sentences. You're basically going for three to five sentences. Less than three, you missed something; you didn't do enough. More than five, you're going for words. You don't have time; don't worry about it. Three to five -- get down what you need to get down. Get into your bodies where you're going to be writing the most, okay? There are four questions you want to answer in the introduction. You will already have these answers once you've planned properly, okay? What do you want to answer? "What is the topic?" "What is the question?" "What is your opinion?" And "What are your reasons?" These are the four things that must be included in the introduction. Now, a lot of you think, "Well, 'topic' and 'question' is the same thing, right?" But no; they're not. This is where a lot of people lose points because they don't realize that these are two different things. The "topic" is the general idea of what the question is about. The "question" is, specifically, what are you asked to do. Now, the most common type of question you will see on both the IELTS and the TOEFL is a question that asks you to choose between two things. They want you to choose one and argue why that one is better than the other one, or why that one is so good. Now, what I'm going to show you today will mostly apply to these types of questions. But if you have a question that asks you to compare and contrast two things, keep in mind even if they ask you to compare two things, they're still going to ask you to lean towards one of them, to choose one as better than the other, in which case you're still going to need to give your opinion, okay? "What is the topic?" You're going to keep this very, very general. All you're doing is giving the idea of what the essay is about. So I know all of you have probably practiced this question: "Is it better to live in the countryside or in the city? Explain your reasons, giving examples, etc." Your first sentence, very, very general: What is the topic of this question? City life? Country life? No. The topic is "where to live". So your first sentence introduces the idea of living -- choosing a place to live. The question is then more specific, so your sentence narrows a little bit, becomes a little bit more focused. The question is: "Is it better in the country or the city?" Okay? Then, you have to give your opinion. You must say, "I believe", "I think", "in my opinion". You don't have to use these words. There're other ways to say your opinion, but if you're not sure of those, put one of those; make it very, very clear what you're saying. This is your thesis. This is a very specific sentence. After reading this sentence, I, the grader, must understand which side you've chosen and what you're going to argue. And then you see the last sentence gets a little bit more general. Why? Because you're giving your reasons. You're not giving me details.
IELTS Writing Task 1 - What to write!
 
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How to succeed in Task 1 of the IELTS Academic writing section. One question that often comes up in Task 1 is "What should I include in the report?" In this lesson, we'll go over some of the key elements to look for in the infographics you will be given, as well as how to present them in a clear structure. Should you write an introduction? What about a conclusion? Should you put in your personal opinion? If you're talking the IELTS, you *must* watch this class! Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/ielts-writing-task-1/ More IELTS resources: http://www.GoodLuckIELTS.com
English Grammar - UNLESS & IF NOT - negative conditional
 
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http://www.engvid.com Students are often told that unless they practice, they won't improve. But if you don't know what 'unless' means or how to use it, you might get the wrong idea. This grammar lesson focuses on the negative conditional and the consequences that follow. I'll teach you when and how to use 'unless', 'if not', 'as long as', and more. Test your understanding of this lesson with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-negative-conditional/
Phrasal Verbs with PASS: pass up, pass away, pass out...
 
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Don't pass up this opportunity to increase your vocabulary! In this lesson, we will look at common phrasal verbs using the verb "pass". You will learn how to reply politely if you hear someone has "passed away". You will also be prepared if someone says they will "pass by" your house soon. Do you know the difference between "pass out", "pass over", and "pass around"? Watch this lesson on useful English phrasal verbs to find out! http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-pass/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is phrasal verbs. Surprise, surprise. Today, we're looking at the phrasal verbs used with "pass". Okay? So once again, what is a phrasal verb? It's a verb and a preposition that together can have the literal meaning of the two words, like what the two words actually mean, plus other meanings that are a little bit unexpected. We're going to look at "pass up". Sometimes it's "pass up on" something. "Pass on", "pass over", "pass through", "pass by", "pass down", "pass away", "pass out", "pass off", "pass around". Notice how when I have prepositions that begin with vowels, like A, O, O, etc., it sounds like one word. "Pass away", "pass out". Just make sure you understand it's a verb and a preposition. So, let's start. "Pass up". When you pass up on something, for example, or you pass up an opportunity, it means you let it go. You don't grab it, you don't catch it. An opportunity comes, and you pass up on it. It means you don't really necessarily want to take part of it. For example, in a job. The company has an opening for a manager, and my friends or my colleagues say to me: "You should apply for this position." And I... I'm not really in the mood right now, I want to do other things, so I pass up on that opportunity. Okay? So let it go. And of course, there's the literal meaning. You are standing on a ladder, you are painting the ceiling, and you need a... Another paintbrush, so I grab one and I pass it up to you. Okay. "Pass on" has a few meanings. One is a soft way to say die. So: -"Oh, how's your grandfather?" -"Oh, I'm afraid he passed on a few weeks ago." Pass on: died. "Pass on" also means pass information, or move, or give, or transfer information. So I... I say to you... You're... You're my staff, I say: "Okay. Here's the new rules for this situation. Pass it on to everybody in the office." It means give it, pass it to everybody. Okay? "Pass on" is also a little bit similar to "pass up", but it's more with specific things. Okay? So for example, you invite me to dinner, and you make a nice roast pig, or something like that. Very delicious. But, I'm a vegetarian. I don't eat meat. So I pass up on the... On the roast, but I will have the salad, I will have the vegetables. Oh sorry, I will pass on the roast. Not "pass up". I will pass on the roast, thank you, I will take something else. Pass up on an opportunity, pass on something. Say: "No thank you." Okay. "Pass over" means I could just pass over. So, before I passed up, now I'm passing over. More like sideways. We call it laterally. Okay? I can also pass over, it means have a quick look at something. Here's your document, I'll just pass over it. I have a very quick, not detailed look. Okay? Now, we can also use "pass over" to skip something or someone. So, I have some people, and I'm trying to build a basketball team. And I'm thinking: "Hm. Who...? Who are the best players?" So I'll take you, I'll take you, I'll pass over you, and I'll take you, and I'll take you. So this person is passed over. It means I go over them, and I go to the next one. I skip them. "Pass through". If you're just passing through town, it means you're not stopping for very long. You're coming, you're saying hi, you're going. Now, "pass through" also literally means to go through something. So if I'm wearing a very thin shirt, the wind will pass right through it, and basically chill my skin. Chill my bones. "Pass by" also means, like, staying for a very short time. So if I come up to my friend's house, he is not expecting me or she is not expecting me, and I ring the doorbell. They open the door, and I say: "Hi. I was just passing by. I was in the neighborhood." It means I just came for a short visit unexpectedly. Okay? If something passes you by, it's [whizzing noise]. The car, I was driving my car, the... Another car passed by, and just kept going. So to move without stopping. And you can also talk about more general things, like time. Time doesn't wait for anybody. Time just passes by, regardless of what you do.
English Vocabulary - ACTUALLY
 
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http://www.engvid.com 'Actually' is actually used more often in conversation than you think. It has several uses in English, and is a common shortcut we use to correct someone or to emphasize something. In this lesson, you'll hear how to pronounce the word correctly, and learn its full use. http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-actually
Vocabulary - sometimes, sometime, some time, always, all ways
 
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http://www.engvid.com Sometimes, some time is all you need to figure out a language problem. But sometime in the future, or maybe it's already happened to you sometime in the past, you won't have that time. So here's a little help with words that sound and look almost the same, but are really different. Take the quiz some time here: http://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-sometimes-always/
Basic English Vocabulary - SEEM
 
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http://www.engvid.com English seems difficult sometimes. But if you get the right explanations, it's not that hard after all! In this lesson, we'll look at the verb 'seem'. I'll teach you what it means, and how to use it properly. After the lesson, take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/basic-english-vocabulary-seem/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi, again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is about the verb "seem", okay? And this was requested by Sheila from Indonesia on our Facebook page. If you want to make any requests for lessons, please ask. Today, we're going to look at the verb "seem". Now, this is a verb that creates a lot of problems for students because it's not an action verb and it's not a "be" verb. It's somewhere in between, okay? Actually, we call this a "state verb", but I'll explain that again after. So for example, you've heard this sentence, "You seem happy." Or, "you seem upset." What does that mean? Does that mean that you are happy or that you are upset? Maybe. I don't actually know. This is just what I think. Or, "He seems to be a pilot." It means, "I think he's a pilot, but I don't know." So basically, "seems" means something looks like something or it feels like something but it's not necessarily true. It's probably true because that's the image or the impression that we have, but we don't know for sure if this is what that is or the situation is true. Okay? So it's something that you think but you're not sure about. It's more like an opinion or even a guess. Okay? So that's the hardest part about "seem" because it's not saying something is or isn't. It's something maybe. What's the difference between "you seem happy" and "you are happy"? "You are happy" means -- this is a declarative. This is true. This is the case. This is the situation. "Happy" describes "you". "You seem happy" means you're smiling, but maybe you're very sad and you're just hiding it. Or maybe you're very, very -- you seem very calm, but you're really upset, right? So "seem" -- all that "seem" means is the appearance, nothing else. It's not true. It's not untrue. Okay? We're going to look at a couple more examples, and you'll have a better idea of what I'm talking about. Okay. So let's look at something else now. Remember I said that "seem" is a state verb. What does that mean? It means you can never use it with an -ing. You can never say, "He is seeming nice" or, "She is seeming to be" -- something else. Right? So it's never used as an-ing. That's one thing. If you want to talk about a particular quality of somebody -- like, you want to talk about something specific. Not about the person, maybe about what the person does. So, "She seems to be good at her job." In this case, you must add the "to be". Before, we wanted to use a noun after "seem", so we used "to be". Now, we are using an adjective, but you still have to use "to be" because I'm not describing "her". I'm describing a quality of "her". Okay. So that's the main thing. Now, I said you can never use "seem" with-ing. But here, you're looking at this word and going, "What's going on? There's an-ing." But there's also an-ly. This is an adverb, adverb that is telling you something about the adjective. So let's look at these three sentences. "He is nice." If I said, "He is nice", is he nice? Yes. This is just stating a fact. It's a declarative sentence. If I say, "He seems nice", is he nice? Maybe, but probably. Okay? But this one is a little bit tricky. If I say, "He seems nice", he's probably nice. If I say, "He is seemingly nice", what does that mean? It's a little bit tricky. It means he is acting nice, but he's not really nice. Tricky, isn't it? "Seemingly nice" means he's putting on this impression, but there's a reason he's putting it on. He's not really nice. He's just pretending to be nice. So you have three different sentences, and "seems" and "seemingly" -- completely different meanings, completely different idea behind them. Okay? So it's a little bit tricky. "He seems nice." "He seems to be good at his job." "He is seemingly nice." Three different ways of using the verb "seem". Remember; we use it like an action verb, "he seems", "she seems", but never with-ing. Okay? So like an action verb for the "S"s, but it's like a "be" verb because there's no action. It's just a situation. Okay. Again, if you want to get more examples, go to www.engvid.com. I have a quiz there that will hopefully help you. And if you have any questions, write them in the comments. See you next time.
How to increase your vocabulary
 
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http://www.engvid.com Here are some great tips for remembering your vocabulary and learning new words. This lesson will show you how to learn more than one new word at a time and how to practice learning and remembering words that will improve all areas of your English quickly. Watch the video, then take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/how-to-increase-your-vocabulary/
Writing - Misplaced Modifiers
 
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http://www.engvid.com "Engvid.com is great for English learners where you can learn many new things about the language." Does that sentence seem OK to you? Well, in this lesson you will find out why it isn't and where the modifying clause should be. Misplaced modifiers are a common problem in writing and after this lesson, should be a problem of the past. Test your writing skill with the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/writing-misplaced-modifiers/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit more advanced. It's actually very useful for native English speakers as well, not only ESL learners. Today we're talking about misplaced modifiers. Now, this is a very important grammar point, plus it's also very, very important for those of you who need to do English writing. Okay? This is a very common mistake that people will see in all kinds of writing. It could be very, very embarrassing sometimes because... You'll understand in a minute why. But I'll show you the different types and we'll figure out a way to fix it as much as we can. So, first of all, what is a "modifier"? A modifier is anything in a sentence, it could be an adjective or an adverb, a clause, a phrase, anything that modifies something else in the sentence. What does "modify" mean? Means to change, change the meaning of, change the idea of. Okay? So, for example: if you say: "A car", you have an idea of a car. You say: "A red car", you have a different idea of the car probably. So "red" modifies "car". Okay, so what we're looking at is misplaced modifiers. We have misplaced modifiers, dangling modifiers, squinting modifiers. Don't worry about the technical words. Worry about what is actually happening here. So I'm going to start with these examples, and we'll look at a few others in a minute. So look at these two sentences: "I call only my mother when I'm sick." "I only call my mother when I'm sick." Now, this word: "only" is the modifier we're looking at. It is very, very often misplaced; people don't realize that this word doesn't necessarily go where it should go half the time. It's amazing how many people misplace it. So what does this sentence mean: "I call only my mother when I'm sick"? It means: when I'm sick, I don't call my friends, I don't call my girlfriend or boyfriend, I don't call my aunt or uncle; only my mother. I'm sick: "Mom, come make me some soup, please." You have to be polite, of course. "I only call my mother when I'm sick." It means: when I'm healthy, I don't call her. I never speak to her, only when I'm sick do I call her. She gets very angry at me, she thinks I'm using her. But according to this sentence, I am, because I only call her when I'm sick. So you understand what this word does to the sentence. Okay? Very, very important where you place it to know which word it's going to modify. The secret about modifiers: place them close to the word you're trying to modify. But that also doesn't always work. "People who whistle quickly become annoying." Now, you're thinking: "This sentence looks okay." The problem is: what does it mean? Is it: "People who whistle quickly, become annoying"? Or: "People who whistle, quickly become annoying"? Which one do you mean? All people who whistle or just people who whistle quickly? I don't think I should whistle, I'll probably blow the mic, but very fast whistling. Right? So, this is called a squinting modifier; you're not sure which word the modifier is going with. How can I fix this? You can probably cut it into two sentences. "I get quickly annoyed by people who whistle." Or: "People who whistle become annoying quickly." Or just change the location or again, just split it into two different sentences, that's another solution. Here's another one, this is called more... This is more of a dangling modifier: "I went to see a movie last night with my friend, which was really boring." Okay, maybe you understand the sentence. I don't. What was boring, the movie or the going out with the friend? This is called a dangling modifier because I don't actually know what it is modifying. I'm not sure what this "which" is, the situation or the movie. So again, to fix it, just bring it closer to the actual thing. I'm going to assume you're talking about the movie. "I went to see a movie last night which was really boring, with my friend." No, that's not a very good way to fix it either. "I went to see a movie which was really boring last night with my friend." That's much better, it's right next to the thing you're modifying. So you want to put this right here, so it modifies the movie itself. Okay? So here're three different examples of misplaced modifiers. Let's look at a few more. Okay, let's look at a few more examples, and eventually, we'll get to some funny ones that you'll understand why it could be embarrassing.
English Vocabulary for EXERCISING at the GYM
 
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Worried about that "spare tire" or "muffin top" people are pointing at? No, we don't mean car parts or baked goods. It's time to get in shape, so head to the gym! In this lesson I'll help you get "shredded" without having to worry about English. You will learn some common words and expressions about exercising, fitness, and gym equipment. You will also learn how to explain your fitness goals to a personal trainer. Ready? Let's get "jacked". http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-exercise-gym/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about getting you in shape. What does that mean? It means going to the gym and exercising, and all the vocabulary you need to do that well. If you go to the gym and you need to speak to a personal trainer or a fitness coach, he or she will use these words to help you get a very nice body. So let's start with these. First of all, most people who go to the gym want to "get in shape". It doesn't mean they want to become square or a circle or a triangle. It means they want to have a good body, and also to feel healthy. They want to breathe easier, they want to be able to walk or run for a longer time, they want to be able to feel good about their physical condition. Now, a lot of people also go to the gym because they want these things. They want to be "fit". "Fit" basically means healthy. Some people want to get "toned". They want some lines here and there; they don't want to be round. They want more lines, a little bit more showing muscles; a little bit less showing fat. Some people want to get "cut". Now, "cut" means that you see all the lines where all the muscles are or should be, because you've worked out a lot. You have very little fat, more muscle. Now, some people want to get "shredded". "Shredded" means like very, very, very cut. So if you think, for example, Brad Pitt, in the movie Fight Club, he was shredded. Very little fat, all muscle, and cut in all the right places. Then if you say someone is "jacked", then you think of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Before he was a politician, a little bit before he was an actor, he was a bodybuilder. He was "jacked"; he had huge muscles everywhere. "Ripped" and "shredded" basically mean the same thing. These are all slang words for "toned", basically. And everybody wants like a "six-pack abs". They want one, two, three, four, five, six. You have to work very hard for that. You have to get rid of a lot of fat to get all the muscles to show up. Keep in mind: all of these things, they're more about a lifestyle than about exercising, but you have to exercise to get all these things. Okay, so what can you do to exercise? You can "work out". One thing you can do, you can walk around your house every day after dinner and, you know, work your digestive system. All the food you ate goes to the right places, everything okay. But you can also "work out", means you go to the "gym" where they have all the weights, all the machines, you can exercise. "Work out", exercise. Why? Because you want to get rid of your "spare tire". Now, this happens a lot more to men, but a spare tire. So, you know in your car if you have a flat tire, in the back, you have a spare tire? So imagine carrying that spare tire around your stomach. You're skinny, skinny, skinny, fat, skinny, skinny, skinny, skinny. That's your spare tire. Now, men also have "love handles", you can grab them on the side and you can play with them. I won't explain too much where the "love handle" term comes from, but that's what they're called. Women, on the other hand, it's called a "muffin top". Because you know when you have a muffin, there's the paper, and then-whoop-it comes out? So if you're wearing really tight jeans and then a little bit sticks out, that's your muffin top. So, you go to the gym, you want to get rid of all these things. Some people want to "bulk up", means they want to get bigger. They want to "build muscle". Muscle. Some people want to "slim down", means they want to get thinner. They want to "burn fat". So you build muscle, you burn fat. Ideally, you do both at the same time. And, of course, more important than all of this: diet. You have to stop eating McDonalds, you have to stop eating pizza, you have to stop eating bad food if you want to get any of these things. Now, what can you do at the gym? You can do "weights". "Weights" means like actual physical, heavy things that you lift, etc., you do all kinds of things with them. Or you could do "cardio". "Cardio" is short for "cardiovascular", it means working the lungs, working the inside, getting the body, the blood to flow properly, getting your air passages to open and close properly. One thing you can do for cardio is "aerobics", so you know, like jumping jacks, and all that stuff, and running, and all these things, exercises on the floor. You do only with your body and a lot of movement to get the inside to burn fat.
The Passive: When, why, and how to use it
 
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http://www.engvid.com You know how to construct the passive form, but then you wonder, "why should I use this?" You use the passive to sound more interesting, impress readers (especially those grumpy IELTS and TOEFL essay graders), and sometimes because there is no other option. This lesson will tell you when, why, and how to use the passive effectively. Test yourself with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/the-passive-when-why-and-how-to-use-it/
IELTS – 3 Reading Strategies
 
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Is the IELTS Reading section very challenging for you? Can't finish all the readings and questions before the time is up? In this lesson, you will learn three approaches to the IELTS Reading section and their pros and cons. The goal of this lesson is to help you finish the test on time without compromising your understanding of the readings. Learn how to read less while answering more questions correctly. After watching, make sure to do the quiz to test your understanding. Good luck on your test! https://www.engvid.com/ielts-3-reading-strategies/ https://www.GoodLuckIELTS.com/ https://www.writetotop.com/ WATCH NEXT IELTS Writing: The 3 Essay Types https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ-Vyqxn1To TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about IELTS. As usual, with IELTS lessons, I will be speaking a little bit faster than normal. It's good for your listening practice. But if you're not taking the IELTS, you can still listen and try to follow us as we go through this section. So, let's begin. Today, I'm going to look at the IELTS reading section. I'm going to look at three different approaches to tackling the IELTS reading section. Students always ask me: "What should I do with the reading? How do I do it? How can I finish on time? How can I answer more questions?" Right? So I'm going to give you three approaches, three different ways to try to do the IELTS. Okay? We're going to look at three different ways. They're completely different from each other. The most important thing I want to tell you before we start: you have to know what works for you. Okay? One of these approaches will work for you; the others may not. Practice all three. If you're comfortable with one and it seems to work for you, and your score seems to be getting better, stick with that one and practice that one. Don't try to do all three each time. Figure out which one works, and just practice that one the most. Okay? The most obvious one and the first one we're going to talk about: read the entire passage, and then tackle the questions. Now, a few things to say, good and bad, about this approach. So, you have 20 minutes, let's say, that you're going to start from the first passage, you're going to do about 17 minutes; the second passage, you're going to spend 20 minutes; the last passage, you're going to spend 23, 24, 25 minutes. So, you have to do this very fast. So: can you read the entire passage and do the questions in that timeframe? Okay? That's the question you must ask yourself. Are you a fast reader? Can you comprehend everything you're reading? How is your vocabulary? Things like this. Some people, they must read everything, from beginning to end, and then go to the questions. But they can also keep; they can retain the information they've read, so when they go to the questions, they know where to go back and look for the answers. Now, the good part about this is that you have all the information in your head once you've read the entire passage. The bad part is that you're going to be reading the passage twice. Okay? Or not the whole passage, but you're going to read big chunks of the passage twice. You'll have read it the first time, you'll go to the questions, and then you'll be reading again to find the answers, because you're looking for specific words now. When you get to the questions, sometimes it's only one word difference from what you read in the passage. So, do I recommend this? Yes and no. If you're a fast reader and you can comprehend, then yes, do that. If you're not a fast reader, then no, don't do this. You'll be wasting too much time and reading more than you need to. What I'm going to do with these two approaches is show you how to read less. So you don't need to read the entire passage; you just need to read the areas that contain the answers to the questions. So, the second approach: go straight to the questions. You look at the question. First of all, understand the type of the question. Is it a multiple choice? Is it a fill-in-the-blank, like a summary? Are you looking for like headings for each paragraph? Are you looking for the title? Etc. Figure out what you're looking for, read the question carefully, pick out the keywords in the question or the key idea in the question, and then scan the passage. Don't read the passage. Just quickly look everywhere for where that information ought to be.
Advanced English Grammar: Collective Nouns
 
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http://www.engvid.com ARE the English police looking for you? Or IS the English police looking for you? In this English grammar lesson we will look at how to use collective nouns like STAFF and COUPLE, and of course, police, in the correct way with their matching verbs. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/advanced-english-grammar-collective-nouns/ TRANSCRIPT Hi, welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. I have another great lesson for you today based on a request... a few requests actually from our www.engvid.com site. Today we're going to look at collective nouns. An example of a collective noun: "staff", "police", "audience", "family". These are nouns that might include individual members or be looked at as a whole unit. Okay? So: "staff" means the total group of employees or it could mean each individual employee. So, now you're thinking: "Okay, well, good. What's the problem?" The problem is: what verb do you use with these nouns? Do you use a singular verb or do you use a plural verb? Okay? So, for example: do you say: "The staff was invited to the BBQ." or do you say: "The staff were invited to the BBQ."? I'm afraid I have to tell you there's actually no rule that decides this. What decides this is you. What do you want to say? What is your intention? Do you want to talk about the individuals or do you want to talk about the group? So, for example, look at this sentence: "My staff consists of young and old alike." "Alike" is basically like "both", both young and old. Now, why am I using the singular? Because here, I'm talking about my entire staff, my whole collection of employees. Right? So I'm probably going to use the singular because I'm talking about the one unit. Here, I could say both; I could say: "My staff", my entire unit of employees or I could talk about all the individual people who work for me were invited to the BBQ. So, again, it's more about what you want to intend... What you want to say, what you intend. Sorry, you don't want to intend anything. Okay? Here's another example: "My family are going to be citizens soon." "My family was invited to a wedding." I have a plural, I have the singular; it depends what you want to say. "My family" - means all the members of my family - "are going to be citizens soon." It makes a bit more sense when you also have the plural here, "are" and "citizens". It sounds a little bit more natural. "My family was invited to the wedding." The Smiths, we... My family is the Smiths, so when the invitation came, the Smiths are cordially invited to attend the wedding of Jack and Jill who last week went up the hill. I'm not sure if you know this little poem. Anyway, so the same thing goes for "police", "audience", "couple", "faculty". Lots of collective nouns. Depends what you want to say. Now, usually... And keep in mind: this is also difficult for native English speakers to decide which one. Keep in mind that usually in the U.S. and Canada, most people will automatically choose the singular: "The staff is", "The police is", again, depending on the situation. In the U.K., they will naturally or usually go for the plural: "The staff are", "The police are". Now, again, let's look at: "police". I'll give you two examples. Somebody was bothering my neighbour. Okay? And like they were like making noise. My neighbour asked the person to leave. The person wouldn't leave, so she called the police. They - the police - they came and removed this person. But, I have to be very careful driving these days because the police is cracking down on texters; people who drive and text. I don't do that, but I've seen them around. Right? So this... You have to be careful which meaning you want to use. Sometimes it'll be very natural, like I would only use the singular here because I'm talking about the whole unit. Here, both okay. Do you want to talk about the individuals? Do you want to talk about the group, the whole group? Now, if you want to be specific, if you very clearly want to show that you're talking about the individuals, add a word: "staff members", "family members", "police officers". If you add these words that show the individuals, you will have absolutely no problem. If I say: "staff members", obviously the verb will be plural because this is now the main subject. And "staff" becomes the adjective, "family" becomes the adjective. Okay? If I say: "police officers", "police" becomes the adjective, this is my subject, and I'm going to use a plural verb. If I want to say one person, one police officer, then of course I'm going to be talking... using the singular. Okay? So, again, very straightforward. Whatever you intend to do, that's what will help you choose the verb. But if you're not sure, go to: www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there where you can get a little bit more practice. And, of course, visit my YouTube site, subscribe if you like. And I'll see you again real soon.
English Grammar - Comparing: funner & faster or more fun & more fast?
 
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http://www.engvid.com Is playing video games funner or more fun than studying grammar? Not sure when to use '___er' or 'more ____ than' when comparing things? In this lesson we will look at syllables as a way to choose the faster car, the more beautiful painting, or the more clever phrase. Take the quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/comparing-funner-faster-syllables/ TRANSCRIPT Hi, again. I'm Adam. Welcome to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is very common I think - a very popular question. I get asked this all the time by students who are learning English: when to use "-er", when to use "more" when we are comparing things, for example with adjectives. When do I say "better", for example, or "happier" or "more expensive"? How do you know which one to use? Okay? So it's very, very simple, okay? We're going to look at syllables. To use "-er", we use -- sorry. We use "-er" with words that have one or two syllables. We use "more" with words that have two or more syllables. Now, before I explain that, what are syllables? "Syllables" are vowel sounds in a word, okay? They're not the number of vowels; they're the number of vowel sounds. But first, what is a "vowel"? Just in case you're not familiar: A, E, I, O, U; these are the vowels in English. Consonants are B, C, D, F, G, and so on. Keep in mind "Y" is a consonant even though it sounds often like a vowel. Okay, so back to syllables. So these are the vowel sounds. So for example, the word "cat". How many vowel sounds are in the word "cat"? One: "ah" -- "cat". Keep in mind -- here's another one-syllable word: "leak". Two vowels, one vowel sound, "leak", "eeee", okay? Can you think of a two-syllable word? How do you feel right now? I bet you feel "happy". I'm sure you feel happy because you're watching www.engvid.com, right? "Happy". The two vowel sounds: "ha", "py" -- sorry. My mistake. "Hap", "py", "ah", "eeee", okay? How about a three-vowel sound word? How about three syllables? "Beautiful". Sorry. I'm not having the best day spelling today. "Beau", "ti", "ful". Three syllables. How about four? "Ex", "cep", "tio", "nal" -- "exceptional". Great. Very good. Okay. One more -- five. Very common word: "International". Can you divide them up into the syllables? Try it. "In", "ter", "na", "tio", "nal" -- "international", five syllables. So now, here we go back. We see one or two syllables or two or more syllables. So now, you're thinking, "Okay, well if I have a two-syllable word, I still don't know which one to use, right?" Well, here is the answer. One or two syllables: If the word ends in "Y" -- I'll put it here. Sorry about the mess. If the word ends in "Y", use "-er". So "happy" -- if you want to compare two things; who's happier? Me or my friend? Then you drop the "Y"; then you put "ier". "Happier". Okay? If the word -- the two-syllable word -- ends in a consonant, okay, then you use "more". Okay? So "gentle" is technically a two-syllable word, but it ends in a vowel, so "gentler". I'll think of an example of a consonant-ending word. Now, there are, of course, exceptions. "Good" does not take "-er" or "more". "Good" becomes "better". "Bad" becomes "worse". "Far" becomes "farther". I'll write this one down. "Far" becomes "farther", so you have the extra addition here. "Much" becomes "more". "Little" becomes "less", okay? Now -- oh, I put it twice. Sorry. Now, "fun" is a one-syllable word, but you will never hear anybody say "funner". Why? Because it sounds like "funnier". So this is an exception. We usually say "more fun". Now here's an example of a two-syllable word that ends in a consonant, so you think "cleverer". Now, some people will say "cleverer", but because of the "r-r" ending, it's a little bit hard to say, so many people will say "more clever". "He is more clever than she is", okay? For example. I still can't think of a word that ends in a consonant. "Feather". No. That's not -- it's a noun; I can't use that. Okay. It'll come to me. I'll put it on the comments on www.engvid.com. And if you want to practice more of these, go to www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there, and you can practice these and come back, and we'll do some more lessons. So don't forget to check out my YouTube page and subscribe. See you then.
English Vocabulary: How to talk about the economy
 
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http://www.engvid.com Let's talk business! Today you'll learn vocabulary that will help you to read and speak about the economy. We will look at common words used to discuss economic matters, such as GDP, stagnation, fiscal, and more. These words and expressions will help you read financial news articles and follow economic reports on television and online. After the lesson, take the quiz and try to practice these words by discussing economic matters in English with your co-workers and friends. Feel free to ask me questions in the comments section on engVid. http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-how-to-talk-about-the-economy/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson, we're going to look at business English. We're going to talk about the economy. Now, we're not going to get into too much detail. We're not going to get into economic theories, etc. What we're going to look at is some vocabulary that will help you read financial articles and newspapers, or online, or watch financial broadcasts on TV; CNN, Money Matters, etc., things like that. So, we're going to look at all these words. We're going to start with "GDP" because everything somehow relates to "GDP - gross domestic product". What is this? This is the total value, the total monetary value of goods and services produced within a country. So everything that the country produces from toilet paper to airplanes, and services from massage to heart surgery, all the money that's made from these goods and services together adds up to the GDP. So, when we're talking about GDP, we're going to refer back to this expression when we're talking about some of these other words. So, first, let's look at "fiscal". "Fiscal" basically means anything to do with money, anything to do with financial matters, especially when we're talking about taxes. Okay? So, when... The most common thing you'll hear is "fiscal year". So when we're talking about a company's fiscal year, we're talking about it's the beginning of its tax year to the end of its tax year. In some countries, everybody matches this to January to December; in other countries, you're allowed... Your fiscal year starts when you start your business, and then one year later is the end of your fiscal year. It's easier to match it to the calendar year, but... A "quarter". Now, you're going to always hear about prices, and stocks, and values going up or down over the last quarter or over the last two quarters. What is a "quarter"? It's basically three months. So if you're talking about the first quarter of the year, you're talking about January, February, March. That's your first quarter. Your next three months, second quarter. Four quarters makes one year. "Currency". I think everybody knows this word, but just in case, this is the money that is used in a country or a region. This is the monetary value that is used for exchanges, trades, investments, etc. In Canada, we use the Canadian dollar. In the U.S., they use the American dollar. Euro in Europe, etc. A "budget". A "budget" or "to budget", it can be a noun or a verb, means to make a plan on how to spend a certain amount of money. So, for example, a government has this much money that they need to spend, or they have a plan that they want to spend this much money. Now, they want to spend a million dollars. I'm being very simple, here; I'm not going to get into big numbers. They need to spend a million dollars to provide all the services that they need and to buy all the materials that they need to import, etc. If they are running on a deficit, that means that they need to spend more money than they have. They have to spend on things to bring in or to run the country, but they don't have. So if I need to spend a million dollars but I only make the revenues of the country are only $900,000, then they will run on $100,000 deficit. Okay? "Surplus" is the opposite. "Surplus" is when the government or any company, you don't have to apply this to a government, when you have more money than you need for the budget. So if I need to spend a million dollars over the next year, but I have a million and a half, then I have half a million dollar surplus, which is always a good thing. "Inflation/deflation". "Inflation" is when prices of goods and services go up, but wages stay the same. So, basically, the purchase power of the individual goes down. You have the same amount of money, but you can buy fewer things or you can hire fewer people to do to have services for you. "Deflation" is the opposite. That's when prices go down, and the value of your dollar or your currency goes up. Both situations are not good.