This video series was created by the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta with support from eLearning Services -- Faculty of Nursing. All rights reserved. For demonstration purposes only. In clinical settings artificial nails are not permitted.
Views: 283487 Teaching and Learning Technologies
"How to Apply Ointment to the Eyes and Eyelids" This video is part of The OEI Educational Series. More information about our practice can be found at http://www.orlandoeyeinstitute.com Remember, your eyes are in good hands with Orlando Eye Institute!
Views: 223644 Orlando Eye Institute
Yeastrol Candida Cleanse FREE. Click Here: http://bit.ly/yeastrol18 Aciclovir | What is Aciclovir ? Acyclovir is a guanosine analog antiviral drug that acts as an antimetabolite. Acyclovir is used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, varicella zoster (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Viral (HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV) thymidine kinase converts acyclovir to the acyclovir monophosphate, which is then converted to the diphosphate by cellular guanylate kinase, and finally to the triphosphate by phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate kinase. Acyclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase and competes with the natural deoxyguanosine triphosphate, for incorporation into viral DNA. Once incorporated, aciclovir triphosphate inhibits DNA synthesis by acting as a chain terminator. One may consider acyclovir to be a prodrug as it is metabolized to more active compounds. Aciclovir is selective and low in cytotoxicity as the cellular thymidine kinase of normal, uninfected cells does not use acyclovir effectively as a substrate. Acyclovir may cause nephrotoxicity (crystallization of acyclovir within renal tubules, elevation of serum creatinine, transient), and neurotoxicity (coma, hallucinations, lethargy, seizures, tremors). Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity usually resolve after cessation of aciclovir therapy. However, there is no well-defined relationship between aciclovir concentrations in the blood and these adverse effects. Click here to discover the NATURAL way to treat Herpes: http://healthcurecare.blogspot.com/2014/08/herpes-simplex-treatment-alternative-to.html get rid of herpes, how to get rid of herpes, how can u get rid of herpes, how do u get rid of herpes, best way to get rid of herpes, mat herpes treatment, herpes labialis treatment, ways to get rid of herpes, can you cure herpes, how to get rid of herpes on face, how to get rid of mouth herpes, can you ever get rid of herpes, how to get rid of a herpes outbreak, how can i get rid of herpes, how to get rid of herpes on lips fast, can u get rid of herpes, how to get rid of herpes outbreak fast, how to get rid of herpes on lips, herpes symptoms treatment, finding a cure for herpes, can colloidal silver cure herpes, permanent cure for herpes, the herpes remedy report, labial herpes treatment, otc herpes treatment, feline herpes treatment, herpes research cure, herpes genitalis treatment, how to cure a herpes outbreak, cure for oral herpes, herpes outbreak treatment, herpes vaccine cure, possible cure for herpes, facial herpes treatment, oral herpes treatments, treatment for herpes outbreak, topical herpes treatment, home remedy for herpes outbreak, over the counter herpes treatments, cure herpes forever, how to cure herpes naturally, any cure for herpes, how to cure herpes at home, home treatments for herpes, alternative treatments for herpes, best herpes treatments, cure for herpes virus, herpes simplex cure, there is a cure for herpes, homeopathic remedy herpes, herpes simplex type 2 treatment, herpes simplex virus type 2 treatment, mouth herpes treatment, herpes treatment over the counter, herpes simplex 1 treatment, over the counter herpes treatment, herbal herpes treatment, natural remedy for herpes outbreak, homeopathic remedy for herpes, cure for herpes simplex, herpes treatments over the counter, best remedy for herpes, herbal remedy herpes, eye herpes treatment, herpes simplex treatment, homeopathic treatment for herpes, the cure for herpes, herbal remedy for herpes, remedy for herpes, herpes natural cure, topical treatments for herpes, treatments for herpes simplex, herpes simplex treatments, how to cure herpes, herpes type 2 cure, what is the cure for herpes, herpes treatment cure, natural remedy herpes, treatment for herpes simplex, herpes type 1 treatment, herpes topical treatment, herpes home treatment, herpes natural treatment, herpes simplex 2 treatment, new herpes treatment, Valaciclovir aciclovir tablets aciclovir cream aciclovir tablets 400mg valaciclovir aciclovir creme aciclovir 800mg aciclovir 800 penciclovir aciclovir crema famciclovir aciclovir 400 aciclovir tabletten aciclovir tabletas herpesbläschen Acyclovir http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Chf_u125C4 Aciclovir
Views: 1632588 ryudoz zzz
A vaginal yeast infection is mostly caused bij a yeast called Candida albicans. This animation explains what a vaginal yeast infection is. What causes a vaginal yeast infection, which symptoms can occur, and what can you do to prevent it? Finally, treatment options are discussed. Healthchannel makes complex medical information easy to understand. With 2D and 3D animations checked by medical doctors, we give information on certain diseases: what is it, wat are the causes and how is it treated? Subscribe to our Youtube channel and learn more about your health! Healthchannel Youtube channel: http://www.youtube.com/cherishyourhealthtv Subscribe here: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cherishyourhealthtv Have a look at our other channel as well: www.youtube.com/gezondheidspleintv http://www.youtube.com/user/sehtaktv Thanks for watching! Don't forget to like our video and leave a comment.
Views: 1138593 Healthchanneltv / cherishyourhealthtv
http://www.rx2gostore.com/Mometasone_Furoate.php - Visit this online pharmacy to shop for Mometasone Furoate Cream and learn about its usage more in-depth ( plus It has great discount prices).
Views: 130152 HealthQuestions
http://www.rxwiki.com/azithromycin https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXxn_pCvHVm7hdbRPkzqyjZyoK2UdDhx_ Azithromycin is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections such as infections of the lungs and airways, eyes, ears, sinuses, skin, throat, and infections from sexually transmitted diseases. Azithromycin belongs to a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics, which stop the growth of bacteria. This medication comes in tablet, oral suspension, eye drop, and injection forms. The tablets and oral suspensions are taken once a day, with or without food. The extended release suspension is taken once only on an empty stomach. The eye drops are used in the affected eye twice a day. The injection is given by a healthcare professional. Common side effects of azithromycin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, and headache. Eye irritation is the common side effect of the eye drop form.
Views: 83262 RxWikiTV
This video explains a couple of methods to solve concentration and dilution problems in the pharmacy.
Views: 56948 Brad Wojcik
Hi ! I am from Medical Video Illustrations with a best illustration video about Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is four part illustration video. This is first part. This part discusses various microbiological aspects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Very use full, integrated and highly comprehensive illustrated video. Hopefully U would not get bored by watching this microbiology topic as u usually get with microbiology items. U would get so much interesting information that are all clinically relevant. Watch next three parts as well and please appreciate this piece of work with your precious suggestions and comments so that i may upload more and much improved medical illustration videos.And do not forget to subscribe this channel. Thanks Team MEDICAL VIDEO ILLUSTRATION Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. A species of considerable medical importance, P. aeruginosa is a prototypical "multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogen" recognised for its ubiquity, its intrinsically advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and its association with serious illnesses – especially nosocomial infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes. The organism is considered opportunistic insofar as serious infection is often superimposed upon acute or chronic morbidity – most notably cystic fibrosis and traumatic burns – or found in immunocompromised individuals, but the organism does produce a range of clinically important infections in the immunocompetent and/or in situations where no pre-existing vulnerability is required e.g. hot tub folliculitis. In all infections produced by P. aeruginosa, treatment is dually complicated by the organism's resistance profile, which may lead to treatment failure and/or expose patients to untoward adverse effects from advanced antibiotic drug regimens. This dilemma is a central clinical problem in the field of antimicrobial resistance. It is citrate, catalase, and oxidase positive. It is found in soil, water, skin flora, and most man-made environments throughout the world. It thrives not only in normal atmospheres, but also in hypoxic atmospheres, thus has colonized many natural and artificial environments. It uses a wide range of organic material for food; in animals, its versatility enables the organism to infect damaged tissues or those with reduced immunity. The symptoms of such infections are generalized inflammation and sepsis. If such colonizations occur in critical body organs, such as the lungs, the urinary tract, and kidneys, the results can be fatal. Because it thrives on moist surfaces, this bacterium is also found on and in medical equipment, including catheters, causing cross-infections in hospitals and clinics. It is implicated in hot-tub rash. It is also able to decompose hydrocarbons and has been used to break down tarballs and oil from oil spills. P. aeruginosa is not extremely virulent in comparison with other major pathogenic bacteria species – for example Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes – and does not fare especially well under suboptimal atmospheric conditions nor aggregate into enduring biofilms. Pathogenesis Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by neutrophil in patient with bloodstream infection (Gram stain)
Views: 2072 Medical Video Illustration
What is Dermikem Oc? Dermikem Oc Cream is a medicine that is used for the treatment of Skin infections, Fungal infections, Bacterial infections, Fungal infections of toenails and skin, Redness, itching, dryness and swelling of skin, dryness and swelling of scalp and other conditions. Dermikem Oc Cream contains Clobetasol, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, and Terbinafine as active ingredients. Dermikem Oc Cream works by stopping the growth of fungi; decreasing the immune responses; killing the infection causing bacteria; inhibiting the growth of microorganism; Detailed information related to Dermikem Oc Cream's uses, composition, dosage, side effects and reviews is listed below. Dermikem Oc Cream Uses Dermikem Oc Cream is used for the treatment, control, prevention, & improvement of the following diseases, conditions and symptoms: Skin infections Fungal infections Bacterial infections Fungal infections of toenails and skin Redness, itching, dryness and swelling of skin Redness, itching, dryness and swelling of scalp Sexually transmitted infections Psoriasis Urinary tract infections Respiratory infections Soft tissue infections Eye and ear infection Protozoan infections Infections during surgical procedures Dermikem Oc Cream Working, Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology Dermikem Oc Cream improves the patient's condition by performing the following functions: Stopping the growth of fungi. Decreasing the immune responses. Killing the infection causing bacteria. Inhibiting the growth of microorganism. Dermikem Oc Cream - Side-effects The following is a list of possible side effects that may occur from all constituting ingredients of Dermikem Oc Cream. This is not a comprehensive list. These side effects are possible, but do not always occur. Some of the side effects may be rare but serious. Consult your doctor if you observe any of the following side effects, especially if they do not go away. Veins under the skin may look prominent Itchy bumpy skin or redness of the skin Vomiting Red skin Indigestion Rash
Views: 191816 MEDICINE S review
Watch as the Flinn Scientific Tech Staff demonstrates "How To Prepare a Dilute Acide Solution." To view more How-To videos by Flinn Scientific visit us at http://www.flinnsci.com/teacher-resou... ATTENTION: This demonstration is intended for and should only be performed by certified science instructors in a safe laboratory/classroom setting. Be sure to subscribe and check out more videos! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/FlinnScientific/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FlinnScientific/ Website: https://www.flinnsci.com/
Views: 66043 FlinnScientific
Ketorolac solution for injection 60mg drug medication dosage ketorolac (oral route, route) description and brand wikipedia. Ketorolac injection uses, side effects, interactions, pictures ketorolac fda prescribing information, effects and uses. This medication is a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (nsaid) ketorolac injection. Ketorolac injection usp by sandoz (ketorolac) information about toradol side effects, dosage, interactions drugs. Ketorolac injection should not be used for epidural or spinal administration consumer information about the medication ketorolac (toradol), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage 15 may 2014 is short term relief of moderately severe pain in people who are at least 17 years age. Ketorolac tromethamine injection american society of health. This medicine is given in an oral and injection form 28 jul 2017 ketorolac useful situations where opioids are contraindicated or to reduce opioid dosage requirements when used combination with. Ketorolac trometamol 30mg ml solution for injection. Ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg ml injection, usp 2 single dose ketorolac dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more. Doses of ketorolac tromethamine injection are not to exceed 60 mg (total dose per 11 jan 2017 our toradol side effects drug center provides a comprehensive view available information on site pain, pruritus, purpura learn about (ketorolac tromethamine) may treat, uses, dosage, effects, interactions, 60mg 2ml solution for. Ketorolac injection (toradol) side effects, medical uses, and ketorolac medlineplus drug information. It belongs to the group of medicines ketorolac is used for short term management moderate initially administered by intramuscular injection or hi. Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (nsaid), is indicated for the short term (up to 5 days in adults) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at opioid level 17 feb 2017 bolus intravenous doses should be given over least 15 seconds. Daily life interactions for ketorolac tromethamine 60mg 2ml solution injection is used to relieve moderately severe pain, usually pain that occurs after an operation or other painful procedure. Ketorolac injection uses, side effects, interactions, pictures ketorolac webmd drugs 2 drug 6419 details url? Q webcache. Reported side effects for ketorolac tromethamine 60mg 2ml solution injection. My doctor gave me an injection of toradol yesterday and i'm just wondering how many you have had it help you? I can't tell i yet the medicinal product ketorolac trometamol 30mg ml solution for (pl should not be used epidural or spinal administration brand name usp by sandoz common injectable form this medication is no longer than 2 days to treat 5 nov 2014 (ketorolac) relieve short term, moderate severe pain in adults. Ketorolac injection clinical studies in postoperative pain management have demonstrated that ketorolac tromethamine inject
Views: 179 Question Bank
Madeline King, PharmD, assistant professor of Clinical Pharmacy at the University of the Sciences, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, explains how her future research aims to understand the effects of ceftazidime-avibactam in different patient populations.
Views: 92 Contagion_Live
Part 2: Defending metformin (from the haters) http://youtu.be/oH_6yW_YKLA Please watch my Glycemic index video as a supplement to this http://youtu.be/wGBqEojeEDE Metformin is often times the first diabetic drug I use in new diabetics. It is inexpensive, can be used with many other diabetic drugs in combination, it can cause weight loss and has been shown to decrease cardiovascular risk and even pancreatic cancer. It can be used safely in non-diabetics, and pre-diabetics. It can cause GI side effects, so when I start someone on it, I usually give them 1000mg pills, and the goal is to take 1000mg twice a day. Start with 1/2 pill once a day at dinner, in one week, Take 1/2 pill twice a day with food, in another week, take 1/2 pill in the morning and one at dinner, Finally advance to 1 pill twice a day. Some people cannot tolerate the full dose, and have to take somewhat less of a dose. Switching to the ER version can be helpful. If you eat lots of carbs, you will have more side effects. Limiting carbs, helps to tolerate it better AND can help you to lose more weight.
Views: 503631 Dr. Greg Castello
Mid-Atlantic Public Health Training Center, April 21, 2010 – Anne Marie Rompalo, MD, ScM, Professor, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Epidemiology, JHU School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health.
This digital video loop, with balloons in the form of ZYVOX IV bags and other forms, ran at convention booths as homage to the brand's 10-year success. ZYVOX is one of the most powerful anti-infectives in the world, able to combat super bug MRSA effectively.
Views: 341 Conchita Funcia
Video abstract of review paper "Review of nemonoxacin with special focus on clinical development" published in the open access journal Drug Design, Development and Therapy by Qin and Huang. Abstract: Nemonoxacin is a novel C-8-methoxy nonfluorinated quinolone with remarkably enhanced in vitro activity against a wide variety of clinically relevant pathogens, especially gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It has a low propensity for selecting resistant pathogens than fluoroquinolones, since bacteria become resistant to nemonoxacin only when three different mutations occur in their quinolone resistance-determining regions. Nemonoxacin shows greater efficacy than most of the widely used fluoroquinolones in the murine model of systemic, pulmonary, or ascending urinary tract infection. Nemonoxacin has a sound PK profile in healthy volunteers. It rapidly reaches maximum concentration Cmax 1--2 hours after oral administration in the fasting state and has a relatively long elimination half-life of more than 10 hours, which is similar to fluoroquinolones. Approximately 60%--75% of the administered dose is excreted in unchanged form via kidneys over 24--72 hours. Phase II and III studies of oral nemonoxacin and Phase II studies of intravenous nemonoxacin have been completed in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), before which the Phase I studies of oral and intravenous nemonoxacin indicated sound tolerance and safety with healthy volunteers. The published results demonstrate that an oral dose of either 500 mg or 750 mg nemonoxacin once daily for 7 days is as effective and safe as levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days. Nemonoxacin is well-tolerated in patients with CAP. The most common adverse events of oral administration are observed in the gastrointestinal and nervous system, the incidence of which is similar to levofloxacin treatment. The Phase III studies of intravenous nemonoxacin for treating CAP and oral nemonoxacin for diabetic foot infection has been registered with promising outcomes to be expected. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/review-of-nemonoxacin-with-special-focus-on-clinical-development-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 154 Dove Medical Press
PneumoNP video: PneumoNP is a collaborative research project funded under the Seventh Framework Programme, with a €5.7 million grant. Starting in 2014, it is aiming at the development of a theragnostic system for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections of the lung, with focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae caused infections. The project is coordinated by IK4- CIDETEC (Spain). The PneumoNP consortium consists of 11 partners from 6 EU member states. Research institutes and a university with a sound research background and clinicians will collaborate with innovative SMEs, and one enterprise. Each partner will have a distinct role in the project and will ensure that the project results will be exploited in an efficient manner. The partners are listed below: Adenium (DA) CIC biomaGUNE (ES) IK4-CIDETEC (ES) Erasmus University Medical Centre (NL) Eurice (GE) Fraunhofer ITEM (GE) Ingeniatrics (ES) Pathofinder (NL) SetLance (IT) Umaps Communication (FR) Utrecht University (NL) To find out more about the project, please visit www.pneumonp.eu or https://twitter.com/PneumoNP
Views: 1339 Benoît Dessine
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity, and consequently are able to colonise a wide range of niches. Their ease of culture in vitro and availability of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strain genome sequences has made the genus an excellent focus for scientific research; the best studied species include P. aeruginosa in its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, the plant pathogen P. syringae, the soil bacterium P. putida, and the plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens. Because of their widespread occurrence in water and plant seeds such as dicots, the pseudomonads were observed early in the history of microbiology. The generic name Pseudomonas created for these organisms was defined in rather vague terms by Walter Migula in 1894 and 1900 as a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagellated bacteria with some sporulating species, the latter statement was later proved incorrect and was due to refractive granules of reserve materials. Despite the vague description, the type species, Pseudomonas pyocyanea (basonym of Pseudomonas aeruginosa), proved the best descriptor. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4623 Audiopedia
Presented at: Microbiology & Immunology 2017: https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 Presented by: Glenn Tillotson, PhD, FIDSA, FCCP - Consultant Medical Microbiologist Speaker Biography: Glenn Tillotson has 30+ years pharmaceutical experience in early pre-clinical and clinical research, commercialization, medical affairs, scientific communications including publication planning strategic drug development, life cycle management and global launch programs. Dr Tillotson has been instrumental in the development and launch of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, fidaxomicin and most recently solithromycin. Glenn has held several key committee positions at the American College of Chest Physicians, he is on the Scientific Steering Committee for the GTCBio the Annual Summit on Anti-infective Partnering. Currently Dr Tillotson has published greater than 150 peer-reviewed manuscripts, presented greater than 270 scientific posters and is on several journal Editorial Advisory Boards including the Lancet Infectious Disease, eBioMedicine Expert Reviews in Anti-Infective Therapy and F1000. Webinar: The escalating challenges of antimicrobial resistance and the efforts to conquer these threats Abstract: The global threat of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by the World Health Organization, the United Nations and many other expert bodies. The burden of resistant pathogens is immense and only likely to escalate with predictions of millions of deaths annually and massive economic impact. Since antibiotics were available clinically bacteria have become resistant to these drugs with multi-drug resistant mutants now causing many different types of infection. Bacteria have multiple methods of becoming resistant involving target site alteration, access to the cell or modification of the removal of various molecules. Some antibiotics can be affected by all three mechanisms , such as B-lactams, while others succumb to a single change to lose their effectiveness. Despite major advances in new antibiotics in the 1980-1990's there have been no new classes approved since 2005, daptomycin, thus there is an impetus to identify potential new classes of agents which are safe and effective. Presently there are several novel approaches being studied which may provide some hope for new therapies. These include siderophore modifications of a standard B-lactam, agents which alter the cell membrane, quorum sensing blocking, novel targets which involve protein synthesis and other sites. This presentation will provide a brief refresher on antimicrobial resistance and then focus on a selection of new agents and platforms of research. Earn PACE/CME Credits: 1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots: https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 2. Watch the webinar on YouTube above or on the LabRoots Website: https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 3. Click Here to get your PACE: September 14, 2019 – http://www.labroots.com/credit/pace-credits/2458/third-party 4. Click here to get your CME credits: December 14, 2017 – https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/WDF2W6B LabRoots on Social: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LabRootsInc Twitter: https://twitter.com/LabRoots LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/labroots Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/labrootsinc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/labroots/ SnapChat: labroots_inc
Views: 50 LabRoots
Paul E. Wischmeyer, MD, EDIC Professor of Anesthesiology and Surgery Associate Vice Chair for Clinical Research, Department of Anesthesiology Director of Perioperative Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine
Views: 225 Duke Clinical Research Institute
Streamed live on Mar 28, 2017 With many bacteria becoming impervious to drugs, new approaches are needed to combat the rise of antibiotic resistance. In this seminar, Harvard scientists and clinicians will discuss the history of drug resistance, how bacteria become able to shrug off the medications we use to treat disease, and ways to address the crisis. Like Harvard Medical School on Facebook: https://goo.gl/4dwXyZ Follow on Twitter: https://goo.gl/GbrmQM Follow on Instagram: https://goo.gl/s1w4up Follow on LinkedIn: https://goo.gl/04vRgY Website: https://hms.harvard.edu/
Views: 1422 Harvard Medical School
This Wisconsin Critical Care Paramedic module covers pharmacology as associated with critical care interfacility transports.
Views: 3962 WCTCEMS
The extensive use of antibiotics has led to the development of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs), limiting the action of drugs previously considered to be highly active. Infections involving multi-drug resistant bacteria are a major concern for most hospitals and healthcare facilities, since they contribute to an increase in morbidity and mortality compared to the underlying diseases alone. They also impact length of stay and related healthcare costs. The main MDROs related to antimicrobial resistance are Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) enterobacteria, Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) enterobacteria ESBLs are enzymes that have developed resistance to many antibiotics in the β-Lactam family. These enzymes are most commonly produced by two bacteria - Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae and are widespread in both hospital and community settings. An estimated 20% of K. pneumoniae infections and 31% of Enterobacter spp infections in intensive care units in the United States now involve strains not susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins.2 Carbapenemases Enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics have over the years developed into what are known as carbapenemases. They are ESBLs with versatile hydrolytic capacities that inactivate β-Lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin, cephalosporin, monobactam, and carbapenems. The increasing use of carbapenems due to the spread of ESBLs is creating a vicious cycle, increasing the development of carbapenemase-producing bacteria resistant to the antibiotic. Carbapenems are powerful, broad-spectrum antibiotics , which are often considered to be the last line of defence against multi-resistant strains of bacteria, such as E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) is the most prevalent resistance enzyme to date, showing resistance to all the β-Lactams, including previously effective carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem) used when other antibiotics failed. K. pneumoniae is a common hospital-acquired pathogen, causing urinary tract infections, nosocomial pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infections. The spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is worrying, since this species is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in severely ill patients.3 New Delhi Metallo beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is the newest carbapenemase to emerge.4 The NDM-1 gene produces an enzyme which makes bacteria resistant to most antibiotics (including carbapenems ), except tigecycline and colistin. The NDM-1 type of plasmidic resistance means it can easily spread from one strain of bacteria to another, particularly in patients receiving antibiotic treatment. The fact that NDM-1 is found in E. coli - a typical community-acquired bacteria and the most frequent cause of urinary tract infections - may further accelerate the spread of NDM-1 resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) In this decade, there has been a continuous increase in the incidence of MRSA in Europe and the United States. In the United States, current MRSA rates exceed 50% of all Staphylococcus aureus infections and stand at close to 90% in some Asian countries. MRSA is now resistant to a number of antibiotics, including methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. In some countries, over 60% of S. aureus cases in hospital intensive care units are now resistant to these first-line antibiotics.1 Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) In certain countries (particularly in the US), enteroccocci have become resistant to vancomycin, an antibiotic often used to treat enterococcal infections. Data reported to the CDC for the US during 2004 showed that VRE caused about 1 of every 3 infections in hospital intensive care units. Clostridium difficile The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile have increased significantly over the past 10 years, since a strain of this bacterium originating in North America acquired a new virulence. With the ability to produce greater quantities of toxins A and B, this new strain is more resistant to the antibiotic group known as fluoroquinolones, and has now also spread to European countries.
Views: 1904 moto2kx2
Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Most forms of the disease are lethal, and it affects both humans and animals. Effective vaccines against anthrax are now available, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment. Like many other members of the genus Bacillus, B. anthracis can form dormant endospores (often referred to as "spores" for short, but not to be confused with fungal spores) that are able to survive in harsh conditions for decades or even centuries. Such spores can be found on all continents, even Antarctica. When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host, they may become reactivated and multiply rapidly. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 301 Audiopedia
"The time to act is now — before we lose these "miracle" drugs for good. We need to think twice each time we plan to give an antibiotic course" Associate Professor Tom Gottlieb Antibiotics are invaluable therapeutic agents that have saved many lives. They usually kill bacteria or stop them from multiplying so that the immune system can mount a response to fight the infection. They should only be used to help fight infection when the immune system needs extra help to overcome the invading organisms. There is growing concern that many bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics due to the widespread presence of antimicrobial drugs in the biosphere. There have also been fewer discoveries of new antibiotic drugs and a serious problem of antibiotic overuse. The widespread overuse of antibiotics is believed to have led to an increasing problem of multi-resistant bacterial pathogens in both hospital settings and increasingly in community settings. This program looks at: ways to prevent antibiotic resistance; antibiotic resistance and the three keys to control; antimicrobial 'stewardship' , surveillance and infection control; hospital and clinic procedures and policies which can assist with antibiotic usage; the principles of antibiotic use - the Antimicrobial Creed; prophylactic, empirical and directed therapies; antibiotic use in the General Practice setting- including appropriate prescribing and patient education and compliance; the evidence-based Therapeutic Guidelines on antibiotic use; and where to get advice and assistance. Produced by the Rural Health Education Foundation http://www.rhef.com.au/
Views: 1182 Rural Health Channel
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Views: 1499 National Human Genome Research Institute
Joe Cameron, PharmD, BCPS, Infectious Diseases Pharmacist; Christelle Ilboudo, MD, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Physician, Woman’s and Children’s Hospital The University of Missouri Health Care created an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in 2009. This session will focus on how the program was initially created, the evolution of the program over the past seven years, and financial information as to why the program needs to be continued long term. Insights from the pharmacy stewardship chairman and pediatric infectious diseases physician will be shared, as well as how the team works together for the benefit of our patients in controlling costs and the development of resistant organisms.
Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Most forms of the disease are lethal, and it affects both humans and animals. There are now effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 561 encyclopediacc