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Macrolides: Mechanisms of Action and Resistance
 
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Developed and produced by http://www.MechanismsinMedicine.com Animation Description: The DNA is shown as a circular double strand within the bacterial cell. Like the DNA of all living organisms, it contains the unique genetic code for all of the proteins required for bacterial survival. These include the proteins required for reproduction, growth, repair and regulation of metabolism. It also codes for the 3 kinds of RNA that are essential for carrying out protein synthesis. These are known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). In order for the bacteria to begin protein synthesis, the double-stranded DNA molecule must first unwind and separate in the region which codes for the specific protein that is to be made. Only one strand of the DNA serves as the template for this process known as transcription. Transcription results in the formation of messenger RNA (mRNA) which is a mirror copy of the DNA segment. Once the strand of mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA template and in turn become attached to ribosomes. Bacterial ribosomes are made of a small (30S) and a large (50S) subunit. After the 2 subunits join together around the strand of mRNA, synthesis of the polypeptide chain begins. This step involves the aligning of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules in sequence along the mRNA. Each tRNA carries a unique amino acid (determined by the sequence of the tRNA) which, when aligned along the mRNA and ribosome, join together to form the polypeptide chain. This step is known as translation. The ribosome will continue to add amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain until it reaches a point along the mRNA that signals it to stop. At this point it releases the finished protein molecule. Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, act as inhibitors of protein synthesis by attaching to the 50S ribosomal subunit. By so doing, they block the ability of the ribosome to synthesize the polypeptide chain. By inhibiting protein synthesis, macrolides are considered bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, at higher concentrations and with lower bacterial density or during rapid bacterial growth, macrolides may be bactericidal. Changes or modifications to the 50S ribosomal subunit (i.e. the target binding site for macrolide antibiotics) will confer resistance to macrolides and sometimes other classes of antibiotics. This type of resistance may be of a high level. This mechanism of resistance is mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methlylation) gene which is found on plasmids or transposons (i.e. small genetic elements which are capable of moving from one bacterium to another and integrating into the host chromosomal DNA). Copies of the erm gene are transported to other bacteria via plasmids or transposons through "pili-like" channels. The erm gene is incorporated into the new bacterial genome. During the process of protein synthesis, this bacterium will transcribe and translate the genetic code of the erm gene resulting in the production of a protein enzyme capable of methylating the 50S ribosomal subunit at a specific position. This altered 50S subunit results in decreased binding affinity for macrolides and other antibiotics such as lincosamides (e.g. clindamycin) and streptogramin type B. This pattern of resistance is referred to as the MLS phenotype. Because the macrolide antibiotic is unable to bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit, it is unable to inhibit protein synthesis and thus the bacteria itself is not harmed, continuing to produce polypeptide chains of amino acids. A second mechanism of bacterial resistance to macrolide antibiotics is mediated by efflux pumps. These efflux pumps are encoded by the mef(A) gene which is a transposable element. Because they confer resistance to only macrolides and not lincosamides or streptogramin B they are referred to as the M phenotype. The efflux pumps are energy-dependent and for S. pneuomoniae result in moderate levels of resistance. These pumps traverse the cell membrane of the bacteria and function to "pump out" the macrolide antibiotic after it has entered the bacterium. It should be noted that for other bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus for example, a different efflux system which is plasmid-mediated and encoded by the msr(A) gene results in macrolide resistance as well as lincosamide and streptogramin resistance in some cases. Despite the presence of these efflux pumps, macrolide antibiotics continue to enter the bacteria. However, once inside the cytoplasm of the bacteria, these efflux pumps actively remove the macrolide antibiotics before they have a chance to reach their target, the 50S ribosomal subunit and bacterial protein synthesis is unaffected.
Views: 208356 Mechanisms in Medicine
Drug Mechanism of Action Clarithromycin
 
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Mechanism of action. Clarithromycin prevents bacteria by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to 23S rRNA, a component of the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting the translation of peptides. Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/LeadsCollegeOfPharmacy/ website link: https://pharm.leads.edu.pk/
Views: 87 Leads Group
Macrolides Detailed USMLE Pharmacology Animated - Mechanism of action , Kinetics , Resistance
 
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Macrolides are a class of antibiotics derived from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (originally called Streptomyces erythreus), a type of soil-borne bacteria. Macrolides inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria by reversibly binding to the P site of the 50S unit of the ribosome. Macrolides mainly affect gram-positive cocci and intracellular pathogens such as mycoplasma, chlamydia, and legionella. Erythromycin was the first macrolide discovered; other macrolides include azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin. Their action is primarily bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal at high concentrations, or depending on the type of microorganism.
Views: 8281 Dr.G.Bhanu Prakash
Microbiology - Antibiotics Mechanisms of Action
 
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https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twitter.com/Armando71021105
Views: 356530 Armando Hasudungan
Dr. Max Gomez: Study Links Heart Deaths To Clarithromycin
 
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CBS 2's Dr. Max Gomez has more on who is at risk, and what you should do.
Views: 8324 CBS New York
Clarithromycin Meaning
 
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Video shows what clarithromycin means. A macrolide antibiotic used to treat various conditions.. Clarithromycin Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say clarithromycin. Made with MaryTTS and Wiktionary
Views: 3908 ADictionary
Clarithromycin lowres
 
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Views: 19612 maheshtoon T
Macrolide Animation
 
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Views: 3901 Rosa da Silva
Penicllin mechanism of action
 
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Animation illustrating the mechanism of action of penicllin
Views: 199516 geneedinc
Clarithromycin 500 mg tablets
 
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Clarithromycin 500 mg tablets these antibiotics ain't worth s*** I'm just the same. As you can see in the f****** video. If you're wondering why it's in two spots because I spit out two loogies in two different spots before showing you https://www.gofundme.com/loveyoutub
Views: 2398 MY LIFE
Clarithromycin
 
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Views: 3440 Meda Biotech
Antibiotics Mechanism Of Action Part 1 - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
 
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Dr. Ebraheim’s educational animated video describes how the antibiotic works,its mechanism of action,and all you need to know about it in a simple and easy video, with images that helps you understand more- PART 1. Antibiotics are grouped together and work on a specific part of the bacteria. 1-Some will work on cell wall as penicillin, cephalosporins and vancomycin. 2-Polymixin will work on the cell membrane. 3-Trimethoprim, sulfonamides and Bactrim will affect folic acid synthesis. 4-Antibiotics that work on nucleic acid synthesis include: a-Work on DNA gyrase: cirpofloxacin and metronidazole (flagyl) b-Work on RNA polymerase: rifampin 5-Antibiotics that work on protein synthesis: a-On 30s subunit: tetracylcline (doxycylcine) and aminoglycosides ( gentamicin) b-On 50s subunit: clindamycin, macrolides ( erythromycin) and linezolid (zynox) Become a friend on facebook: http://www.facebook.com/drebraheim Follow me on twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/DrEbraheim_UTMC Donate to the University of Toledo Foundation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Endowed Chair Fund: https://www.utfoundation.org/foundation/home/Give_Online.aspx?sig=29
Views: 26617 nabil ebraheim
Macrolides antibiotics
 
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This antibiotic tutorial explains the mode of action of macrolide antibiotics. It also explains the use and side effects of macrolides in antibacterial treatment. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 14735 Shomu's Biology
clarithromycin
 
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clarithromycin
Views: 76 Content Wizard
Clarithromycin
 
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Nanomedicine for Clarithromycin From www.nanomeda.com www.nanosgroup.com
Views: 13629 Meda Biotech
What does Clarithromycin mean?
 
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What does Clarithromycin mean in English? Learn the meaning of Clarithromycin.
Views: 70 Meaning
Commonly prescribed antibiotic 'clarithromycin ' is linked to an increased risk of cardiac death
 
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Commonly prescribed antibiotic 'clarithromycin ' is linked to an increased risk of cardiac death. Subscribe this channel to watch more motivational, inspirational, valuable and informative videos to soothe, cleanse and inspire your health, mind, body and spirit. Stay tuned and keep watching. Disclaimer:-- Any medical information published on this video is NOT intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Copyright notice:-- "Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use."
Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin
 
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visit www.usmlevideos.net
Views: 33468 USMLEVideoLecturesCK
35b - clarithromycin and stroke damage - My lyme disease and rheumatoid arthritis journey
 
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Amazingly, my mum seems to be finding that not only is clarithromycin helping her arthritis and healing up her MRSA ulcers, but it also improving her stroke damage - clearing up a (possible Lyme ACA) rash on her legs, making the swelling in her leg go down, her walking is improved and the sensation in her left hand is improved.
Views: 879 ruthheasman
62 - Taking clarithromycin for infection - My lyme disease and rheumatoid arthritis journey
 
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My throat is inflamed and sore and I have had conjunctivitis for about a month, so, as it was the weekend, I decided to start taking the clarithromycin again, just for a week to see if I can get these two infections back under control. If it doesn't work, I'll go to the doctor and see what they say.
Views: 2166 ruthheasman
The Dangers of Antibiotics – Clarithromycin / Ciprofloxacin – How Antibiotics Destroyed My Life
 
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In November 2014 and April 2015, I was severely impacted by two different sets of antibiotics. These antibiotics were Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and Ciprofloxacin (Ciprodex). I have made this video to share my story and to help others adversely affected by antibiotics. In the video I discuss my life prior to the antibiotics, the actual incidents, and my current state of affairs. I share things that have helped me along over the past 3 years and speak about potential better days ahead. Please help me spread the word about the dangers of antibiotics, particularly macrolide antibiotics such as Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin (Ciprodex). Too many unsuspecting people are being severely injured, permanently disabled or worse, killed, by these extremely potent antibiotics. It's time to send a message to pharmaceutical companies, doctors, pharmacists and regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada, that poisoning the masses will no longer be tolerated in our society. ONE INJURY, DISABILITY OR DEATH AS A RESULT OF THESE ANTIBIOTICS IS ONE TOO MANY. PRIMUM NON NOCERE - FIRST DO NO HARM Hippocratic Oath – Medical Ethical Standards To find out more about my story and how I was affected, please visit: https://floxiehope.com/lukaszs-story-clarithromycin-and-ciprofloxacin-poisoning-and-healing/ To find out more about how antibiotics affect other people, please visit: https://floxiehope.com/fluoroquinolone-toxicity-recovery-stories/ Fluoroquinolone A to Z Resource Centre: https://floxiehope.com/ Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics In The News: https://floxiehope.com/fluoroquinolones-links-resources/ The Floxie Hope Podcast: https://floxiehope.com/podcast/ MTHFR Gene Mutation - Full Information: https://wellnessmama.com/27148/mthfr-mutation/ Dr. Josh Axe - Healing Leaky Gut Webinar: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tZHzTWu6Po
Views: 1884 Boy Meets World
Clarithromycin Beyond Antimicrobial Effects - Mirna Waked
 
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Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Lebanese Pulmonary Society - Mövenpick Hotel - April 24th to 27th, 2013 - Beirut - Lebanon Conférence présentée lors du Congrès annuel de la Société Libanaise de Pneumologie - Hôtel Mövenpick - 24 au 27 avril 2013 - Beyrouth - Liban
Views: 3393 slpsleb
Clarithromycin Vrs Other Macrolides for R. equi Treatment in Foals.
 
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Pharmacology 227.305 2014. Group 25
Views: 373 Rebecca Weal
Clarithromycin and Acute Kidney Injury
 
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Clarithromycin through inhibition of the metabolism of some calcium-channel blockers and 'statin' medications can cause acute kidney injury. Evidence and explanation provided in this video
Views: 2027 WombwellE
mechanism of action of amphoteracin B
 
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amphoteracin B is an anti-fungal drug .
Views: 1988 pharmacy fun
Macrolides
 
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www.RxWiki.com Clarithromycin is an antibiotic medication commonly prescribed to treat strep throat, sinus infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin infections, ear infections, as well as other bacterial infections.
Views: 733 RxWikiTV
Clinical Microbiology made Ridiculously Simple. Chapter 18 Part 4. Macrolides
 
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Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Telithromycin --- See my website at: http://www.futuredochouse.com/ --- QUPI.com is looking for beta testers! Get limited free access to our Medical Question Bank - http://www.qupi.com/ ---
Views: 806 Future Doc House
Biaxin (Clarithromycin) unboxing
 
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These were described to me as horse pills by my doctor. Only use anti-biotics under doctor's orders and use them to completion. Your ineptitude is a public health concern! Unedited, and shot in 1 take, sorry for the coughing. To learn more about the product visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarithromycin
Views: 2543 MrSeawang
Erythromycin
 
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A larger structure and a very old drug in the macrolides class.
Views: 2840 airamerica1964
Mechanism of action of Azithromycin (Thea).
 
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Миханизм действия Азитромицина. Азидроп, Azydrop. Азитромицин. Глазные капли. http://organum-visus.com/azydrop-eye-pharmacy Аптека для глаз на офтальмологическом портале Орган зрения www.organum-visus.com Материал подготовил Голубев Сергей Юрьевич.
Views: 31189 Sergey Golubev
Erythromycin Nursing Considerations, Side Effects, and Mechanism of Action Pharmacology for Nurses
 
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Grab our free cheatsheet covering the 50 most commonly prescribed medications right here: http://NRSNG.com/50meds Listen to all the episodes at: https://www.nrsng.com/medmaster-podcast/ View the blog post here: https://www.nrsng.com/erythromycin/ Erythromycin Generic Name: erythromycin Trade Name: E-Mycin Indication: useful in place of penicillin when patient cannot take penicillin, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, skin infections, pertussis, syphilis, rheumatic fever Action: Bacteriostatic: suppresses bacterial protein synthesis Therapeutic Class: anti-infective Pharmacologic Class: macrolide Nursing Considerations:  Causes QT prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias  diarrhea  asses infection  monitor liver function tests  instruct patient to finish medication dosage even if they are feeling better  medication should not be shared
How does Daflon 500 mg act
 
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What are varicose veins?
Views: 363129 Jenny Stratieva
Difference Between Erythromycin and Azithromycin
 
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Difference betweeen Erythromycin and Azithromycin is a very frequently asked question in MUHS and Other medical universities all over india.
Peptic Ulcer 5 of 5 (Treatment) Pharmacology
 
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Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Younger patients with ulcer-like symptoms are often treated with antacids or H2 antagonists before endoscopy is undertaken. People who are taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) may also be prescribed a prostaglandin analogue (misoprostol) in order to help prevent peptic ulcers. Acid reducing medication Ranitidine and famotidine, which are both H2 antagonists, provide relief of peptic ulcers, heartburn, indigestion. They decrease the amount of acid in the stomach helping with healing of ulcers.[29] In the absence of H. pylori, 4 weeks of a PPIs are also often used. H. pylori When H. pylori infection is present, the most effective treatments are combinations of 2 antibiotics (e.g. clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole) and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), sometimes together with a bismuth compound. In complicated, treatment-resistant cases, 3 antibiotics (e.g. amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole) may be used together with a PPI and sometimes with bismuth compound. An effective first-line therapy for uncomplicated cases would be amoxicillin + metronidazole + pantoprazole (a PPI).
Views: 22400 DoctorDC online
What Clindamycin Did To Me
 
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The side effects of the antibiotic Clindamycin as I experienced them: from diarrhea, intestinal pain, problematic stools and microbiota imbalance to how I healed myself with Bio K kefir, probiotics, saccharomyces boulardii, the GAPS diet and quitting coffee for several months. Clindamycin is also marketed under the names Cleocin HCl- (Pfizer), Dalacin, Lincocin (Bangladesh), and Dalacin, Clindacin. I hope this helps you to heal from this very strong medicine.
Views: 55955 Davison (DavisonVideo)
Antibiotic's Side Effects Catch Patients By Surprise
 
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5/15 10pm - A potent "go-to" antibiotic that doctors prescribe often could be destroying more than your infection, CALL7 Investigators have discovered.
Medical vocabulary: What does Clarithromycin mean
 
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What does Clarithromycin mean in English?
Views: 54 botcaster inc. bot
Erythromycin
 
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Views: 5014 Una Hilmi
Amoxicillin
 
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Amoxicillin
Views: 267193 Florinda Heltzel
This Antibiotic Can Be Deadly
 
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People with heart disease need to be careful about using the common antibiotic clarithromycin, the Food and Drug Administration said Thursday. Heart disease patients who take the drug, sold under the brand name Biaxin, can die years later, the FDA said. The FDA said it does not know how clarithromycin might cause heart problems or death, but it’s been warning about the problem since 2005. “FDA is advising caution before prescribing the antibiotic clarithromycin (Biaxin) to patients with heart disease because of a potential increased risk of heart problems or death that can occur years later,” the FDA said in a statement. https://www.nbcnews.com/health/heart-health/watch-antibiotic-if-you-have-heart-disease-fda-says-n850416?cid=public-rss_20180223 http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by YT Wochit News using http://wochit.com
Views: 79 Wochit News
antibiotics-11-erythromycin& clarithromycin
 
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هذه اولى حلقاتنا عن الـ Macrolides والتى سنتناولها على مدى حلقتين كاملتين. هنتعرف النهارده على عضوين في هذه المجموعه وهما: Erythromycin & Clarithromycin هنعرف ماهى اهم المحاذير التى يجب مراعتها عند التعامل مع هذه المجموعه. هنعرف هل ينفع نصرف Clarithromycin+Ergot derivatives .؟؟ طيب فيه تفاعل بين الــ Clarirthromycin& Atorvastatin طيب الحل في الحاله ده؟؟ طيب ما هى جرعة الكلاريثرومايسن في حالة الـ H-pylori ؟؟ لمشاهدة فيديوهاتنا الصيدلانيه الجديده بكل سهوله, يمكنك الاشتراك بالقناه من خلال هذا الرابط: http://www.youtube.com/user/himahima110
Views: 439 ibrahim baghaghou
It is a popular and powerful antibiotic, but is it dangerous?
 
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Tonight a warning about a popular and powerful antibiotic. Tens of thousands of patients across the country including some right here in the bay area report devastating side effects and in some cases death. We went to both the government and to one of the largest drug makers in the country to find out what is being done about it. ◂ The ABC Action News app brings you the latest trusted news and information. ABC Action News is Taking Action For You with leading local news coverage, "Certified Most Accurate" weather forecasts, and award-winning I-Team investigations. ABC Action News, WFTS, covers local news in Tampa Bay and Florida. iPhone: http://bit.ly/http://bit.ly/iOS-wfts Android: http://bit.ly/abcaction-android
Views: 20945 ABC Action News
Кларитромицин-Тева
 
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Антибиотик - Кларитромицин-Тева. Видео для сайта http://med2c.ru. Инструкция к данному препарату по адресу: http://med2c.ru/%d0%ba%d0%bb%d0%b0%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%82%d1%80%d0%be%d0%bc%d0%b8%d1%86%d0%b8%d0%bd-%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%b2%d0%b0-%d0%b8%d0%bd%d1%81%d1%82%d1%80%d1%83%d0%ba%d1%86%d0%b8%d1%8f/